DOES DISCOURSE HAVE A 'STRUCTURE'? HARRIS'S REVOLUTION IN LINGUISTICS As a freshman back in 1947 I discovered that within the various academic divisions and subdivisions of the University of Pennsylvania there existed a something (it was not a Department, but a piece of the Anthropology Department) called 'Linguistic Analysis'. I was an untalented but enthusiastic student of Greek and a slightly more talented student of German, as well as the son of a translator, so the idea of 'Linguistic Analysis' attracted me, sight unseen, and I signed up for a course. It turned out that 'Linguistic Analysis' was essentially a graduate program - I and another undergraduate called Noam Chomsky were the only two undergraduates who took courses in Linguistic Analysis - and also that it was essentially a one-man show: a professor named Zellig Harris taught all the courses with the aid of graduate Teaching Fellows (and possibly - I am not sure - one Assistant Professor). The technicalities of Linguistic Analysis were formidable, and I never did master them all.
But the powerful intellect and personality of Zellig Harris drew me like a lodestone, and, although I majored in Philosophy, I took every course there was to take in Linguistic Analysis from then until my gradua- tion. What 'Linguistics' was like before Zellig Harris is something not many people care to remember today.
1 / Reducing Texts to Formulas.- 1. Seeking Canonical Forms.- 2. Analysis of Word Combinations.- 2.1. Grammatical Analysis.- 2.2. Sublanguage Classes and Sentence Structures.- 2.3. Sublanguage Subclasses.- 2.4. The Tables.- 2.5. Validity of the Procedures.- 3. Details of the Analysis.- 3.1. Word Combination within Segments.- 3.2. Obtaining Repeating Types of Sentences.- 3.3. How Much Transformation?.- 3.4. Summary of Procedures of Analysis.- 3.5. Output.- 2 /Result: Formulas of Information.- 1. Meta-science Segments.- 2. Word Classes.- 3. Word Subclasses.- 4. Word Modifiers and Local Operators.- 5. Summary of Word Classes.- 6. Sentence Types.- 7. Sentence Formulas.- 3 / From Structure to Information.- 1. Differences in Structure and Differences in Information.- 1.1. Course of the Information.- 1.2. Changes in Word Classes.- 1.3. Changes in Sentence-types.- 1.4. Critique of the Sentence-types.- 2. Formula-based Critique of Information.- 3. Sublanguage Properties.- 3.1. Grammatical Structure.- 3.2. Discourse Structure.- 3.3. Information Processing.- 4. Further Work.- 5. Toward the Grammar of Science.- 4 / Sublanguage Formulas as Information Units.- 1. Normal Form Linearity: Projection and the Use of the Arrow.- 2. Local Operator Modifiers.- 2.1. Modifiers of Argument (Noun) Categories.- 2.2. Referential Superscripts.- 2.3. Modifiers of Operator Categories.- 3. The Classifier 'Response'.- 4. Correlations between W and V Operators.- 5. Sublanguage Homonymities.- 6. Extending Sublanguage Grammar.- 7. Information Structure and the 'r' Operator.- 5 / The Apparatus of Sublanguage Transformations.- 1. A Preliminary Survey of Sublanguage Transformations.- 2. Relinearization.- 3. Reconstruction of Repetitional Zeroing.- 3.1. Parallel-zeroing and End-zeroing.- 3.2. Subject Zeroing.- 4. Reconstruction of Low-information Zeroing.- 4.1. Broad Selection Words.- 4.2. Strong Selection Zeroing.- 4.3. Constants.- 4.4. Reconstruction of Sublanguage Appropriate Zeroings.- 5. Relative Clause.- 5.1. Representation and Reading in the Tables.- 5.2. Reductions Associated with Relative Clause.- 6. Larger Transformations.- 6.1. Denominalization.- 6.2. Passive.- 6.3 Causative.- 7. Comparative.- 8. Quantifiers and the Negative.- 9. Further Regularization.- 6 / Extending the Analysis: The Informational Environment of the Science Sentences.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Word Classes and Sentence Types.- 2.1. Elementary Fact Sentences.- 2.2. Quantity Sentences.- 2.3. Science Fact Relations.- 2.4. Metascience Operators and Arguments.- 3. Conclusions.- 7 / Information Units in a French Corpus.- 1. Information Grammar as a Pattern-matcher on Sentences and Linearization Rules to Produce Sentences from Informational Units.- 2. An Applicative Grammar of Informational Units.- 2.1. How the Construction of Categories from Word Class Combinations, in Sentences in Scientific Texts, Expresses Both the Specificity of Word Use in That Domain and a Notion of Correctness in Information Units.- 2.2. The Contextual Meaning of Words in Sentences Is Accounted for by Deterministic Categories in Units.- 2.3. The Applicative Status of Categories and the Applicative Structure of Units.- 2.4. Applicative Structure of a Unit and Linearizations.- 3. Using the Grammar of Informational Units as a Pattern-matcher for a Direct Recognition of Informational Units.- 3.1. Avoiding Preliminary Transformations on the Structure of Sentences, and Operations from Sentence Structure to Unit Structure.- 3.2. Getting a List of Categories from a Surface Structure and Matching a Unit on It.- 3.3. Recovering Implicit Information.- 4. Linearization Rules: Producing Sentences Out of Units.- 4.1. Linearization Rules and the Applicative Status of Informational Categories.- 4.2. Organization of the Dictionary of Informational Categories.- 5. Questions Which Are Not Fully Treated Here.- 6. Conclusion and Applications of the Method Presented Here.- 8 / The Cellular Source of Antibody: A Review.- 1. Background.- 2. Early Observations and Experiments on the Macrophage in Relation to Antibody Formation.- 3. Early Studies on the Lymphatic System in the Production of Antibodies.- 4. Lymphocyte or Plasma Cell as the Antibody-synthesizing Cell.- 5. Correlation of Tissue-extract Antibody with Microscopic Observations.- 6. Extraction of Cells.- 7. Release of Antibody from Tissues and from Cells Cultivated in Vitro.- 8. Studies Involving Aggregation of Bacterial Cells Around Tissue Cells.- 9. Histochemical Staining for Nucleic Acid in Lymph Nodes in Relation to Formation of Antibodies.- 10. Fluorescence Staining for Antibody.- 11. Transfer of Cells of Lymph Nodes, Lymph and Spleen.- 12. Resolution of the Problem: Electron Microscopic Studies of Antibody-producing Cells.- Appendix 1 / Tables of Immunology Reports: English.- Appendix 2 / Tables of Immunology Reports: French.- Appendix 3 / Notes to the Tables of the English Articles.- List of Symbols.
Series: BOSTON STUDIES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
Number Of Pages: 589
Published: 31st December 1988
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.88
Weight (kg): 0.98