The Enlightenment was a movement of intellectual change that penetrated every European country as well as North America during the eighteenth century. It aimed to emancipate human reason from prejudice, superstition, and the assertions of established religion. It sought then to apply rationality to the cause of political and social reform, above all to progress - itself a key Enlightenment notion. In this wide-ranging introduction, Ulrich Im Hof describes the origins and development of Enlightenment ideas, and traces their effects on European and American thought, politics and society.The author begins with an account of eighteenth-century European and American intellectual, political, and social life. He describes the universities, academies, salons, and reading societies from which the principal ideas of the Enlightenment emerged and he examines their diffusion, interaction, and influence.
Enlightenment ideas provided a basis at once for democracy, enlightened despotism, and anarchy: they informed, even impelled, the great revolutions in France and America, as well as the regimes that followed them: they were at once the centre and the cause of the great flowering of learning that took place throughout the European world.Professor Im Hof concludes by examining the progress of Enlightenment thought in the nineteenth century, the counter-movement of Romanticism, and the degree to which reason and rationality continue to hold sway at the turn of the twentieth century. This account of the interaction of ideas and events will be widely welcomed by all students of what is perhaps the central intellectual movement of modern times.
Series Editor's Preface.
Part I: The Age:.
1. Enlightenment and Fresh Light.
2. The Eighteenth Century as the Background to the Enlightenment.
Part II: A Changing Society: .
3. The World of the Monarchs.
4. The Aristocracy.
5. The Clergy.
6. The Urban Middle Class.
7. The Farming Community.
8. The Common People.
Part III: Europe and its States:.
9. The Way of the World.
10. Venerable Monarchies and Republics.
11. Cosmopolitanism versus the Nation States.
Part IV: The Champions of Enlightenment:.
12. The Association Movement.
13. The Academy.
14. The Salon.
15. The Reading Societies.
16. Voluntary Charitable and Economic Societies.
17. Agricultural Economic Societies.
18. The Freemasons.
19. The Societies Within the Enlightenment Movement.
20. Periodicals and Books.
Part V: Utopia and Reform:.
21. Improvement and Dreams.
22. Philosophy and Philosophers of the Philosophical Age.
23. Rational Christianity.
24. Natural Law, the Path to Human Rights.
25. Politics and Government.
26. The Economy, Economic Freedom and the Work Ethic.
27. Science, Medicine and Technology.
28. Education, Schools and Popular Enlightenment.
29. Virtue and Patriotism.
Part VI: A Window Opened to a Wider World:.
30. A Window Opened to a Wider World.
Part VII: Emancipation - A Release from Age-old Restraints:.
31. Political and Social Emancipation.
32. Emancipation of the Jews.
33. The Debate on the Role of Woman: On the Way to the Emancipation of Women.
Part VIII: For and Against Radicalization of the Enlightenment:.
34. Radical Enlightenment.
35. Enlightenment by Decree.
36. Early Romanticism: The Reaction against the Enlightenment.
37. Traditionalistic and Governmental Reaction.
Part IX: The Way Ahead into the Nineteenth Century:.
38. Nationalism versus Cosmopolitanism.
39. From the Enlightenment to the Revolutions.
Table of Dates.