"The Economy of Roman Palestine" offers a detailed description of this region's economy in the Roman era (70 AD to 400 AD), providing information that can be further applied to a study of the Roman empire as a whole. Drawing upon a broad selection of primary rabbinic sources as well as a considerable volume of archaeological findings, Ze'ev Safrai characterizes this period as a time of demographic growth and corresponding economic development. Safrai also describes the agricultural and agrarian structure of the province, the pattern of settlement, its highly developed trade system and the influence of the Roman army on the overall economy. He concludes that this economy was to a large extent based on an open market.
Drawing upon Talmudic sources from the 3rd to 7th centuries, Safrai shows that agriculture--specifically grains, wine and oil--was the region's major source of income. He also investigates the industrial sector as well as the production of textiles and glass for export and domestic consumption.