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The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents - Cindy Lee van Dover

The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

Paperback

Published: 1st March 2000
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Teeming with weird and wonderful life--giant clams and mussels, tubeworms, "eyeless" shrimp, and bacteria that survive on sulfur--deep-sea hot-water springs are found along rifts where sea-floor spreading occurs. The theory of plate tectonics predicted the existence of these hydrothermal vents, but they were discovered only in 1977. Since then the sites have attracted teams of scientists seeking to understand how life can thrive in what would seem to be intolerable or extreme conditions of temperature and fluid chemistry. Some suspect that these vents even hold the key to understanding the very origins of life. Here a leading expert provides the first authoritative and comprehensive account of this research in a book intended for students, professionals, and general readers. Cindy Lee Van Dover, an ecologist, brings nearly two decades of experience and a lively writing style to the text, which is further enhanced by two hundred illustrations, including photographs of vent communities taken in situ.

The book begins by explaining what is known about hydrothermal systems in terms of their deep-sea environment and their geological and chemical makeup. The coverage of microbial ecology includes a chapter on symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships are further developed in a section on physiological ecology, which includes discussions of adaptations to sulfide, thermal tolerances, and sensory adaptations. Separate chapters are devoted to trophic relationships and reproductive ecology. A chapter on community dynamics reveals what has been learned about the ways in which vent communities become established and why they persist, while a chapter on evolution and biogeography examines patterns of species diversity and evolutionary relationships within chemosynthetic ecosystems.

Cognate communities such as seeps and whale skeletons come under scrutiny for their ability to support microbial and invertebrate communities that are ecologically and evolutionarily related to hydrothermal faunas. The book concludes by exploring the possibility that life originated at hydrothermal vents, a hypothesis that has had tremendous impact on our ideas about the potential for life on other planets or planetary bodies in our solar system.

One of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles for 2000 "[Van Dover] writes well and is not above conducting heroic experiments in what I assume is her own kitchen."--Dennis Drabelle, Washington Post Book World "[An] impressive, eminently readable book..."--Ellis L. Yochelson, American Scientist "Foremost in understanding the ecology of hydrothermal vents has been Cindy Van Dover. "--Paul A. Tyler, Trends in Ecology and Evolution "The strength of Van Dover's book is that it is academically definitive... Coverage is comprehensive, and detailed geophysical, chemical and biological issues are taken in their stride with the same sureness of touch."--Richard Shelton, Times Literary Supplement "A remarkably thorough and balanced, dynamic account of evolving and expanding knowledge of these ocean systems ... This unique, most up-to-date book on a vast multidisciplinary subject, written enthusiastically and authoritatively, will be an invaluable resource..."--Choice "The book is remarkably thorough and comprehensive and keeps the reader captivated right up to the end... [A] unique source of information on knowledge of an ecosystem that few of us will ever get a chance to see first-hand."--D. Chandramohan, Current Science "I heartily recommend it to anyone with an interest in learning about what is undoubtedly one of the most important discoveries in earth and life sciences of the past century."--John Woodside, The Leading Edge

Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
The Non-Vent Deep Seap. 3
The Physical Environment in the Deep Seap. 4
The Deep-Sea Faunap. 5
Deep-Sea Diversityp. 8
Biogeography and Population Geneticsp. 11
Biochemical and Physiological Adaptations to the Deep-Sea Environmentp. 13
Benthopelagic Coupling between Surface Productivity and the Deep Seap. 15
Rates of Biological Processes in the Deep Seap. 18
The Vent Contrastp. 19
p. 20
Geological Setting ot Hydrothermal Ventsp. 25
What Are Mid-Ocean Ridges?p. 25
How Spreading Rates for Ridge Axes Are Determinedp. 28
Spreading Ratesp. 29
Segmentationp. 31
Magma Supply and Spreading Ratep. 34
Back-Arc and Fore-Are Spreading Centersp. 36
Seamountsp. 37
Volcanic and Tectonic Seafloor Featuresp. 39
Crustal Structurep. 39
Volcanic and Tectonic Fissuresp. 39
Lava Lakes, Drainback. Features, and Lava Pillarsp. 41
Axial Boundary Faultsp. 41
Lava Flow Morphologiesp. 43
Emplacement of Lavas and the Time-Course of a Diking Eventp. 43
Lava Datingp. 45
Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fieldsp. 47
Missing Heat and Hydrothermal Cooling at Ridge Crestsp. 47
Sulfide Depositsp. 48
Morphological Variationsp. 48
Columnar Chimneys and Black Smokersp. 49
White Smokersp. 50
Beehives and Flangesp. 50
Complex Sulfide Moundsp. 53
Weathering of Seafloor Sulfidesp. 56
Dimensions and Ages of Active Hydrothermal Fieldsp. 56
Low-Temperature Diffuse Flowsp. 58
Sediment-Hosted Hydrothermal Systemsp. 60
Ophiolitesp. 61
Appendixp. 63
Referencesp. 70
Chemical and Physical Properties of Vent Fluidsp. 76
Submarine Hydrothermal Circulation Cells: High-Temperature Reaction Zonesp. 76
Phase Separationp. 78
Flow Rates, Transit Times, and Temperature of Formationp. 80
End-Member Fluidsp. 80
Composition 80 Basic Controls on Chemistryp. 81
Magmatic Inputsp. 82
Evolution of Vent-Fluid Chemistryp. 83
Back-Arc Fluid Chemistriesp. 83
Thermal Radiationp. 84
Axial Low-Temperature, Diffuse-Flow Chemistryp. 85
Flow Rates, Temperature, and Temperature Variabilityp. 86
Silicatep. 87
Sulfidep. 87
Oxygenp. 89
Profiles of Oxygen, Sulfide, Silicate, and Temperaturep. 89
Methane, Manganese, and Ironp. 91
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Compoundsp. 92
Flank Low-Temperature Fluidsp. 92
Global Fluxes and the Hydrothermal Influence on Ocean Chemistry and Currentsp. 92
Referencesp. 94
Hydrothermal Plumesp. 99
Anatomy of a Black-Smoker Plumep. 99
Orificep. 99
Buoyant Plumep. 100
Effluent Layerp. 101
Megaplumesp. 104
Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Plumesp. 106
Relationship between Plume Distributions and Geophysical Parametersp. 106
Plume-DTiven Mesoscale Circulationp. 110
Plume Vorticesp. 110
Advection and Downwellingp. 110
Basin-Scale Circulationp. 111
Diffuse-Flow Plumesp. 112
Referencesp. 112
Microbial Ecologyp. 115
Autotrophic Organisms at Ventsp. 117
Nomenclaturep. 117
Aerobic and Anaerobic Chemoautotrophy at Ventsp. 117
Methanotrophyp. 119
Carbon Dioxide Fixationp. 120
Mixotrophyp. 120
Net Chemoautotrophic Production in Free-Living Hydrothermal-Vent Microorganismsp. 120
Alternatives to Chemoautotrophyp. 120
Organic Thennogenesis Hypothesisp. 121
Detrital Thennal Alteration Hypothesisp. 121
Ecology of Free-Living Microorganismsp. 122
Microbial Habitatsp. 122
Hyperthen-nophiles and Superthermophilesp. 122
Flange Microbial Ecology and the Archaeap. 125
Microorganisms in Black-Smoker Fluidsp. 125
The "Endeavour Model"p. 125
The Subsurface Biospherep. 127
Plume Microbiologyp. 127
Suspended Microbial Populationsp. 128
Microbial Community Compositionp. 129
Dominance of a Single
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691049298
ISBN-10: 0691049297
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 448
Published: 1st March 2000
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.42 x 15.52  x 2.74
Weight (kg): 0.62