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The Designer's Guide to Jitter in Ring Oscillators : The Designer's Guide Book Series - John A. McNeill

The Designer's Guide to Jitter in Ring Oscillators

The Designer's Guide Book Series

Hardcover Published: 1st August 2009
ISBN: 9780387765266
Number Of Pages: 276

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The Designer's Guide to Low Jitter Oscillators emphasizes jitter for time domain applications so that there is not a need to translate from frequency domain. This provides a more direct path to the results for designing in an application area where performance is specified in the time domain. The book includes classification of oscillator types and an exhaustive guide to existing research literature which allows designers to find appropriate publications for more detailed design guidance. It also includes classification of measurement techniques to help designers understand how the eventual performance of circuit design is verified. This book contains a CD-ROM with MATLAB examples of design optimization, system level behavioral simulation, and intuitive presentation of probability background.

The Designer's Guide to Low Jitter Oscillators is a companion to The Designera (TM)s Guide to High Purity Oscillators by Hegazi, Rael, and Abidi. This book is for practicing designers with BS or MS degrees and researchers working in fields where noise requirements are specified in the time domain.

Introduction to oscillator jitterp. 1
Applicationsp. 1
Clock recovery in serial data transmissionp. 1
Methods of clock and data recoveryp. 3
Other applicationsp. 4
Summaryp. 5
Types of VCOsp. 7
LC resonantp. 7
Multivibratorp. 8
Ring oscillatorp. 8
Motivation and goals of this bookp. 9
Chapter summaryp. 11
Classification of ring oscillatorsp. 13
Type of signal in the ringp. 13
Single-endedp. 14
True differentialp. 16
Pseudo differentialp. 18
Regenerative switchingp. 21
Signal format summaryp. 21
Tuning methodp. 21
Number of stagesp. 22
Loadingp. 24
Drive strengthp. 27
Voltagep. 28
A Note on linearityp. 29
Summaryp. 29
Output formatp. 29
Single outputp. 31
Dual output (quadrature)p. 33
Multiple outputp. 34
Summaryp. 34
Chapter summaryp. 34
Phase-Locked Loop System Conceptsp. 35
Phase and frequency conceptsp. 35
Phase and jitter concepts in PLL applicationsp. 39
Response of PLL loop to input signal and VCO phase noisep. 40
Summaryp. 43
Measuring phasep. 43
Time Domainp. 43
Time domain: two sample standard deviationp. 44
Frequency Domainp. 46
Summaryp. 49
Measures that will be related in this bookp. 49
Case (i): Frequency domain, VCO open loopp. 50
Case (ii): Frequency domain, PLL closed loopp. 52
Case (iii): Time domain, closed loop, transmit clock referencedp. 54
Case (iv): Time domain, closed loop, self-referencedp. 56
Case (v): Time domain, open loop, self referencedp. 58
Chapter Summaryp. 59
Approximate loop transfer functionsp. 62
Power spectra relationshipsp. 66
Overview of Noise Analysis Fundamentalsp. 69
Fundamentals of random signals-time domainp. 69
Deterministic vs. stochastic signalsp. 69
Expectation value and time averagep. 71
Autocorrelationp. 73
Variancep. 79
Classes of random signalsp. 81
Fundamentals of random signals-frequency domainp. 82
Fourier transformp. 82
Power spectrum of random signalsp. 82
Circuit analysis with random voltages and currentsp. 84
Time domainp. 84
Frequency domainp. 86
Measurement of p.s.dp. 88
Noisep. 89
Types and classification of noisep. 89
Representation of noisep. 92
Noise in oscillatorsp. 92
Time domain-jitterp. 93
Frequency domain - phase noisep. 94
Chapter summaryp. 96
Non-ergodic processesp. 98
Exponentials with gaussian distributed exponentsp. 99
Fourier transform pairsp. 100
Measurement Techniquesp. 101
Theoretical developmentp. 101
Case (i): Frequency domain, VCO open loopp. 101
Case (ii): Frequency domain, PLL closed loopp. 102
Case (iii): Time domain, closed loop, transmit clock referencedp. 102
Case (iv): Time domain, closed loop, self-referencedp. 103
Case (v): Time domain, open loop, self-referencedp. 103
Instrumentationp. 106
Time domain measurement instrumentsp. 106
Frequency domain instrumentationp. 112
Instrumentation summaryp. 112
Experimental verificationp. 113
PLL with multivibrator VCOp. 113
Ring VCOp. 118
Discussion of resultsp. 118
Chapter summaryp. 120
Analysis of jitter processp. 121
Data acquisition techniquesp. 123
Analysis of jitter in ring oscillatorsp. 129
Review of jitter analysis in different types of oscillatorsp. 129
Harmonic oscillatorsp. 129
Relaxation oscillatorsp. 132
Ring oscillatorp. 136
Jitter model theoretical developmentp. 137
Time domain approach: jitter in each oscillator periodp. 138
Special case I: independent delay errors give 1/f2 spectrump. 140
Special case II: correlated delay errorsp. 143
General casep. 146
Development in terms of gate delaysp. 148
Methodology: applying model to circuit designp. 150
Experimental verificationp. 151
Chapter summaryp. 155
Stationarity of two-sample variancep. 156
Variance of clock period errorsp. 157
Sources of jitter in ring oscillatorsp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Classification of jitter sourcesp. 161
Strategyp. 164
Control Path: system-level sources of noisep. 166
Load element noisep. 167
Fully differential casep. 167
Single ended casep. 171
Comparison of differential, single-ended K expressionsp. 174
Switching element noisep. 175
Fully differential casep. 175
Single ended casep. 189
Comparison with other jitter sourcesp. 196
Variation in $$ with tuningp. 196
Bias element noisep. 199
Fully differential case: tail current noisep. 199
Comparison with other jitter sourcesp. 203
Summary of noise contributionsp. 204
Experimental Verificationp. 208
Simulationp. 208
Hardware testsp. 214
Comparison with jitter in harmonic oscillatorp. 220
Time domain approachp. 220
Frequency domain approachp. 221
Chapter summaryp. 223
Differential pair switching delayp. 224
Time-domain (transient) noise source simulationp. 227
Design methodologyp. 231
Implications for design and simulationp. 231
Methodology Overviewp. 233
Step 1: refer design goal to asymptotic Kp. 233
Step 2: adjust asymptotic K to gate-level Kp. 234
Step 3: determine constraints on the design of the individual gatep. 234
Step 4: design for ring center frequencyp. 235
General design techniques for low jitterp. 237
Chapter summaryp. 237
Low jitter VCO design examplesp. 239
CMOS single-ended ring oscillatorp. 239
VCO topologyp. 239
Number of stagesp. 240
Oscillation frequencyp. 241
Frequency tuningp. 242
Jitter minimization - long channelp. 244
Jitter minimization - short channelp. 245
Experimental resultsp. 245
Bipolar differential ring oscillatorp. 247
VCO requirementsp. 247
Ring oscillator designp. 249
Experimental resultsp. 257
Chapter summaryp. 264
Indexp. 275
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387765266
ISBN-10: 0387765263
Series: The Designer's Guide Book Series
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 276
Published: 1st August 2009
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.61