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The Design and Analysis of Research Studies - Bryan F. J. Manly

The Design and Analysis of Research Studies

Paperback

Published: 13th July 1992
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This book provides students and research workers in the biological, medical and social sciences with the statistical background needed to collect and analyse data in an intelligent and critical manner. Key examples and case studies are used to illustrate commonly encountered research problems and to explain how they may be solved or even avoided altogether. Professor Manly also presents a clear understanding of the opportunities and limitations of different research designs, as well as an introduction to some new methods of analysis that are proving increasingly popular. Topics covered include the differences between observational and experimental studies; the design of sample surveys; multiple regression and its generalizations to log-linear and logistic models; experimental and quasi-experimental designs; interrupted time series; computer intensive methods of statistical inference; and the ethical considerations of research. In the final chapter, there is a useful discussion of how the various components of a research study (including deciding on the objectives, planning, designing, and the collection and analysis of data) come together. This practical and well-structured book will be essential reading for graduate students and researchers in a wide range of disciplines, including biology, anthropology, medicine and the social sciences.

' ... of lasting appeal to graduate students and others who need clear guidance on the planning of experiments and their statistical interpretation.' B. Dixon, Biologist ' ... a stimulating book.' Biometrics

Prefacep. xv
Previewp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Different types of research studyp. 1
Bias and confounding in observational studiesp. 4
The sample surveyp. 12
Data analysisp. 12
Experiments and quasi-experimentsp. 13
Ethical considerationsp. 15
Planning and carrying out a research studyp. 16
The sample surveyp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Simple random samplingp. 19
The distribution of sample meansp. 20
Estimation of totals and proportionsp. 23
Determining sample sizes with simple random samplingp. 26
Stratified samplingp. 28
Sample size allocation for stratified samplesp. 30
Stratified sampling for proportionsp. 32
Poststratificationp. 33
Quota samplingp. 34
Ratio and regression estimationp. 34
Cluster samplingp. 37
Systematic samplingp. 38
Multi-stage samplingp. 39
Non-sampling errorsp. 40
Biased proceduresp. 41
Bias introduced during data collectionp. 42
Processing errorsp. 43
Methods of data collectionp. 43
Designing a questionnairep. 44
Summary and further readingp. 46
Exercisesp. 47
The 1989 Mayoral election in Dunedinp. 47
Checklist for planning a sample surveyp. 57
Other sampling designsp. 58
Introductionp. 58
Mark--recapture samplingp. 58
Removal samplingp. 62
Transect samplingp. 66
Size-biased samplingp. 66
Sampling positions of objects in spacep. 68
Distance-based methodsp. 70
Quadrat countsp. 75
Sampling of quadratsp. 77
Summary and further readingp. 78
Exercisesp. 79
Estimating the size of a population of micep. 79
Site location in prehistoric Thailandp. 82
The linear regression modelp. 87
Introductionp. 87
The simple linear regression modelp. 87
Estimation and tests with simple linear regressionp. 88
Multiple linear regressionp. 92
The extra sum of squares principlep. 94
Assessing the assumptions of a regression modelp. 98
Residual plotsp. 100
Tests on residualsp. 107
The Durbin--Watson testp. 108
Summary and further readingp. 112
Exercisesp. 113
The loss of sales in a store due to a firep. 120
Experimental designs to assess the effect of a treatmentp. 132
Introductionp. 132
External and internal validityp. 133
Pseudoreplicationp. 135
The one-group pretest--posttest designp. 137
The static group comparisonp. 138
The importance of a comparable control groupp. 139
Regression to the meanp. 140
The comparative posttest designp. 142
The comparative change designp. 144
The comparative change design without randomizationp. 148
The regression discontinuity designp. 148
Regression adjustments for confounding variablesp. 152
Matchingp. 156
Summary and further readingp. 161
Exercisesp. 161
The Lanarkshire milk experimentp. 163
Interrupted time seriesp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Analysis with the interrupted time series designp. 168
Analysis with the comparative time series designp. 175
Summary and further readingp. 177
Exercisesp. 178
Fluoridation in Birminghamp. 182
More advanced experimental designsp. 188
Introductionp. 188
Factorial experiments and the analysis of variancep. 188
Some general considerationsp. 194
Transformation of datap. 199
Experiments with three or more factorsp. 201
Higher order interactionsp. 204
Blockingp. 205
Latin squaresp. 208
Nested factorsp. 209
Split-plot experiments in agricultural researchp. 210
Other uses of the split-plot designp. 213
Repeated measures experimentsp. 215
The assumption of compound symmetryp. 217
Analysis of variance by multiple regressionp. 219
Ancillary analysesp. 224
Summary and further readingp. 225
Exercisesp. 225
An experiment on lockstitch seamsp. 227
Some special types of datap. 234
Introductionp. 234
The analysis of count datap. 236
Chi-squared tests on count datap. 237
McNemar's test for correlated proportionsp. 242
Log-linear modelsp. 244
Extraneous variancep. 252
Using base ratesp. 253
The analysis of proportion datap. 255
Survival datap. 261
Generalized linear modellingp. 263
Multivariate datap. 264
Summary and further readingp. 266
Exercisesp. 267
The location of prehistoric Maya sitesp. 270
Computer intensive statisticsp. 286
Introductionp. 286
Randomization testsp. 288
Determining the number of randomizations requiredp. 292
Confidence limits by randomizationp. 293
Monte Carlo testsp. 294
Jackknifingp. 298
Bootstrappingp. 302
Summary and further readingp. 304
Exercisep. 305
The solar activity cycle in the pastp. 305
Ethical considerationsp. 312
Introductionp. 312
Obligations to societyp. 312
Obligations to funders and employersp. 313
Obligations to colleaguesp. 314
Obligations to human subjectsp. 314
Experiments on animalsp. 316
Summary and further readingp. 316
A clinical trial on ECMOp. 317
Synthesis: carrying out a research studyp. 321
Introductionp. 321
Deciding on objectivesp. 321
Planning the collection of datap. 324
Sample size determinationp. 325
Collecting datap. 334
Analysing datap. 334
The research reportp. 335
Referencesp. 336
Author indexp. 345
Subject indexp. 348
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521425803
ISBN-10: 0521425808
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 372
Published: 13th July 1992
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 2.1
Weight (kg): 0.55