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The Dark Matter Problem : A Historical Perspective - Robert H. Sanders

The Dark Matter Problem

A Historical Perspective

Hardcover Published: 30th April 2010
ISBN: 9780521113014
Number Of Pages: 214

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Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology.

Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented.

This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers, and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.

'This is a fascinating detective story, described in a personal and very readable way ... The appendix presents a beautiful summary of relevant definitions of astronomy. Black and white photos, graphs and drawings accompany the text. There are 6 pages of references and a 4-page index.' Bill Howard, CHOICE
'This is a splendid and timely book and the reader is rewarded with an insight into the tantalising conflict between the majority proponent view of dark matter and the competing viewpoint embodied in the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis ... Professor Sanders is an experienced theorist in the field of dark matter astrophysics and is eminently qualified to address this question and he does so with notable clarity. His book is written with the scientific community in mind and the language is uncompromisingly scientific but it is nonetheless fathomable by the non-specialist. The Dark Matter Problem will find an easily accessible place on this reviewer's bookshelf for some time.' Brian Parsons, FAS Newsletter
'In this readable and enjoyable book, Sanders takes us through the historical development of the theory of dark matter ... The Dark Matter Problem will benefit advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and some researchers. ... Students and professionals working in the field may receive this book as a training tool that highlights the current deficiencies of the dark matter paradigm.' Physics Today
"One of the most perplexing problems in astrophysics is the nature of the major component of the universe: dark matter. Author Sanders has been a major researcher in attempts to understand it. In this historical account, the presence of dark matter is traced from its discovery in 1933, through its rediscovery by optical and radio astronomers who investigated the rotation curves of galaxies and the internal motions of clusters of galaxies. They then traced light and mass as a function of galactic radius. Remarkable insight came with the discovery of hot gas in galaxies, satellites that explored details of the cosmic microwave background and the realization that a second problem existed: dark energy. Particle astrophysics and cosmology enter the picture and a realization that modified Newtonian dynamics may have to be invoked to explain phenomena that we cannot directly observe. This is a fascinating detective story, described in a personal and very readable way without much mathematics but presenting arguments that might be hard to follow without some background in physics. The appendix presents a beautiful summary of relevant definitions of astronomy. Black and white photos, graphs and drawings accompany the text. There are 6 pages of references and a 4-page index." Bill Howard, CHOICE Magazine
This is a splendid and timely book and the reader is rewarded with an insight into the tantalising conflict between the majority proponent view of dark matter and the competing viewpoint embodied in the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis... Sanders deals in detail with the astrophysical evidence which forms the basis of the dark matter viewpoint and contrasts its successes and shortcomings with the similarly limited success of MOND. The conflict is illustrated beautifully with a detailed account of the successful interpretation of flat galactic rotation curves by both proposals but Sanders also takes time to examine the key role played by the demands of spiral galaxy stability, by studies of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies and by the unique success of MOND in providing a possible basis for the Tully-Fisher Law. What was not available to Krauss in "The Fifth Essence" is the mass of information gleaned over the past twenty years by satellite based x-ray and microwave instrumentation, by high spacial resolution radio astronomy and through gravitational lensing analyses. ... His book is written with the scientific community in mind and the language is uncompromisingly scientific but it is nonetheless fathomable by the non-specialist. Mathematical argument is kept to a minimum but is perhaps inevitable in discussing MOND - and there is a useful appendix which goes some way to provide a summarised background on which an inexpert reader can base a first reading. "The Dark Matter Problem" will find an easily accessible place on this reviewer's bookshelf for some time." Brian Parsons, FAS Newsletter, Summer 2010
"La cosmologie est-elle en crise? Question apparemment incongrue au regard de l'actuelle pretention des cosmologistes d'avoir perce les secrets du cosmos. Cela dit, en science, on ne reconnait bien souvent une crise qu'apres coup. Y aurait-il donc des signes d'une possible remise en cause de la conception dominante de l'univers? Disons-le tout net: oui. Par exemple, dans l'actuelle theorie du big bang, 95% de l'energie et de la matiere de l'univers manque a l'appel. Pour retomber sur leurs pieds, les cosmologistes ont en effet ete obliges de postuler l'existence d'une matiere et d'une energie de nature inconnue constituant la quasi-totalite de l'univers, tout en reconnaissant etre incapables d'en detecter directement la moindre trace. C'est ce qu'on appelle le probleme de la matiere noire "The Dark Matter Problem", qui est presente dans ce livre suivant une approche historique. Ce probleme sera-t-il resolu sans bouleversement majeur de la physique ou de la cosmologie? Pour l'instant, il n'est bien sur pas possible de repondre a une telle question. Mais il est tres instructif de suivre les errements de la recherche en ce domaine. La matiere noire, c'est effectivement l'arlesienne de la cosmologie. On en parle beaucoup depuis 40 ans; on est convaincu de son existence; mais on ne l'a jamais detectee directement. L'astronome Fritz Zwicky fut le premier a montrer dans les annees 1930 qu'il manquait de la matiere dans les amas de galaxies. Ne sachant pas trop quoi en penser, les astrophysiciens preterent peu attention a cette anomalie. Mais elle refit surface dans les annees 1970 quand on s'apercut que les galaxies tournaient plus vite qu'elles auraient du, a en juger par la masse de leur matiere visible. Jusque la, rien de vraiment dramatique. Pourquoi faudrait-il que toute la matiere soit visible? Le probleme allait toutefois se corser. Toujours dans ces annees 1970, la theorie du big bang assoit son hegemonie. Or s'il existe autant de matiere que le suggere la dynami
"... readable and enjoyable book... On the whole, The Dark Matter Problem will benefit advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and some researchers. Students and professionals in the field may receive this book as a training tool that highlights the current deficiencies of the dark-matter paradigm. Understanding those deficiencies is an important part of the learning process." Liliya L. R. Williams, Physics Today

Acknowledgementsp. vii
Introductionp. 1
Early history of the dark matter hypothesisp. 11
Prehistoryp. 11
Zwicky and the modern concept of dark matterp. 12
Dark matter on galaxy scalesp. 15
Radio astronomy: a new tool for galactic astronomyp. 20
Finzi sums it upp. 23
The stability of disk galaxies: the dark-halo solutionp. 26
Building disk galaxies: too hot to be realp. 26
Dark halos to the rescuep. 30
Larger implicationsp. 34
Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxiesp. 38
Radio telescopes: single-dish and interferometersp. 38
Early results of single-dish neutral hydrogen observationsp. 44
Early observations of spiral galaxies with radio interferometersp. 48
Flat rotation curves: perception approaches realityp. 51
The maximum-disk: light traces massp. 57
Reaction follows revolutionp. 57
The anomaly exists beyond the visible diskp. 62
Low-surface-brightness galaxies and sub-maximal disksp. 65
Reflections on observations of rotation curvesp. 67
Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physicsp. 69
A brief history of modern cosmological modelsp. 69
Structure formation: dark matter again to the rescuep. 72
Some like it hot, most like it cold, all like it in the pot 10 billion years oldp. 76
What is the matter?p. 80
A new paradigm: standard CDMp. 84
Clusters revisited: missing mass foundp. 87
The reality of the cluster discrepancyp. 87
Hot gas in clusters of galaxiesp. 88
Gravitational lensing: a new method for probing cluster mass distributionp. 93
The Bulletp. 98
CDM confronts galaxy rotation curvesp. 101
What do rotation curves require of dark matter?p. 101
Global scaling relationsp. 105
Structure formation in a CDM universep. 106
The mass distribution in CDM dark halosp. 109
Substructure in CDM halosp. 113
The Tully-Fisher lawp. 115
Can CDM be falsified by galaxy phenomenology?p. 117
The new cosmology: introducing dark energyp. 119
The accelerated expansion of the Universep. 119
COBE finds the primordial fluctuationsp. 124
What do we see in the CMB?p. 125
Boomerang to WMAP: the age of precision cosmologyp. 127
Reflectionsp. 130
An alternative to dark matter: modified Newtonian dynamicsp. 132
Naive modifications of Newtonian attractionp. 132
MONDp. 133
MOND and hot galaxiesp. 138
MOND and rotation curvesp. 140
The problem of clustersp. 143
Relativistic MOND: TeVeSp. 144
Summing up: MOND vs. dark matterp. 147
Seeing dark matter: the theory and practice of detectionp. 150
Non-gravitational detection of dark matterp. 150
The practice of direct detectionp. 152
Indirect detection of dark matterp. 159
Light on dark matter: the story so farp. 165
Reflections: a personal point of viewp. 166
Appendix: Astronomy made simplep. 173
Referencesp. 195
Indexp. 202
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521113014
ISBN-10: 0521113016
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 214
Published: 30th April 2010
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.3 x 17.8  x 1.9
Weight (kg): 0.59

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