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The Cost of Environmental Degradation in the Middle East and North Africa : Directions in Development: Environment - Lelia Croitoru

The Cost of Environmental Degradation in the Middle East and North Africa

Directions in Development: Environment

By: Lelia Croitoru (Editor), Maria Sarraf (Editor)

Paperback Published: 16th July 2010
ISBN: 9780821383186
Number Of Pages: 188

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How much is a cleaner environment worth? For policy makers, that question used to go largely unanswered. Many economic activities cause environmental degradation, entailing real costs to the economy and to people's welfare. Knowing the extent of these costs is crucial for identifying a country's main environmental priorities and allocating appropriate funds for environmental protection.Over the past decade, the World Bank has initiated a systematic effort to measure the costs of environmental degradation in the Middle East and North Africa, shedding new light on their magnitude and on the need for policy changes. In many cases, these costs were found to be surprisingly large. 'The Cost of Environmental Degradation: Case Studies from the Middle East and North Africa' brings together the best case studies of this program and summarizes their policy impacts at the national and regional levels.The case studies quantify monetarily the annual damage due to environmental degradation and express these estimates as percentages of the countries' gross domestic product. The studies use the most recent environmental valuation methods to estimate the economic costs resulting from air pollution, water degradation, deforestation, and land degradation. Uniquely, the book dedicates a case study to value the costs of environmental degradation resulting from an oil spill and demolition waste in times of conflict. The studies then illuminate the concrete implications on policy, investments, and institutions for the respective nations.This book will be of interest to policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, and academic and research institutions.

Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Abbreviations and Symbolsp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Measuring the Cost of Environmental Degradationp. 2
The Cost of Environmental Degradation in the Middle East and North Africap. 4
Notesp. 8
Referencesp. 9
Water Degradation: The Case of Tunisiap. 11
Overview of the Water Sectorp. 11
Methodologyp. 13
Cost of Water Degradationp. 15
Conclusionsp. 28
Notesp. 29
Referencesp. 32
Air Pollution: The Case of Jordanp. 37
Overview of Air Pollutionp. 37
Methodologyp. 39
Cost of Air Pollutionp. 41
Conclusionsp. 46
Notesp. 48
Referencesp. 50
Deforestation and Forest Degradation: The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iranp. 53
Overview of the Forest Sectorp. 53
Deforestation and Forest Degradationp. 55
Methodologyp. 58
Costs of Deforestation and Forest Degradationp. 59
Conclusionsp. 66
Notesp. 68
Referencesp. 70
Land Degradation: The Case of Moroccop. 75
Overview of Land Resourcesp. 75
Methodologyp. 77
Cost of Cropland Degradationp. 79
Cost of Rangeland Degradationp. 81
Conclusionsp. 82
Notesp. 85
Referencesp. 86
Oil Spill and Waste due to Conflict: The Case of Lebanonp. 89
The Oil Spillp. 90
Demolition, Military, and Medical Wastep. 114
Conclusionsp. 133
Notesp. 135
Referencesp. 141
Implications for Policies, Investments, and Institutionsp. 147
Overviewp. 147
The COED's Impact on Policy Makingp. 149
The COED's Impact on Investmentsp. 152
The COED's Impact on Institutional Strengtheningp. 154
Notesp. 156
Referencesp. 157
Indexp. 161
Estimated COED in Selected Middle Eastern and North African Countriesp. 8
Fish Production in Most Polluted Areas vs. Rest of Tunisiap. 20
Fish Production per Boat in Most Polluted Areas vs. Rest of Tunisiap. 21
Annual Cost of Water Degradation in Tunisiap. 28
Estimated Damages from Air Pollutionp. 46
Shares of Environmental Degradation Cost in Jordan, by Categoryp. 47
Annual Costs of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Islamic Republic of Iran, by Categoryp. 67
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780821383186
ISBN-10: 0821383183
Series: Directions in Development: Environment
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 188
Published: 16th July 2010
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.35 x 14.99  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.3