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The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures : The MIT Press - David Temperley

The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures

The MIT Press

Paperback

Published: 20th August 2004
For Ages: 18+ years old
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Winner of the 2003 Emerging Scholar Award, presented by the Society for Music Theory In this book, David Temperley addresses a fundamental question about music cognition: how do we extract basic kinds of musical information, such as meter, phrase structure, counterpoint, pitch spelling, harmony, and key from music as we hear it? Taking a computational approach, Temperley develops models for generating these aspects of musical structure. The models he proposes are based on "preference rules," which are criteria for evaluating a possible structural analysis of a piece of music. A preference rule system evaluates many possible interpretations and chooses the one that best satisfies the rules. After an introductory chapter, Temperley presents preference rule systems for generating six basic kinds of musical structure: meter, phrase structure, contrapuntal structure, harmony, and key, as well as pitch spelling (the labeling of pitch events with spellings such as A flat or G sharp). He suggests that preference rule systems not only show how musical structures are inferred, but also shed light on other aspects of music. He substantiates this claim with discussions of musical ambiguity, retrospective revision, expectation, and music outside the Western canon (rock and traditional African music). He proposes a framework for the description of musical styles based on preference rule systems and explores the relevance of preference rule systems to higher-level aspects of music, such as musical schemata, narrative and drama, and musical tension.

"This book makes substantial progress in the computer modeling of basic aspects of musical cognition. The author's presentation of complex subject matter is as direct and straightforward as one could wish. His writing is natural, clear, and unfailingly logical." - Fred Lerdahl, Fritz Reiner Professor of Music, Columbia University

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
An Unanswered Questionp. 1
Goals and Methodologyp. 4
Music Cognition and Music Theoryp. 8
The Input Representationp. 9
The Preference Rule Approachp. 13
The Implementation Strategyp. 14
Six Preference Rule Systemsp. 21
Metrical Structurep. 23
Meterp. 23
Previous Research on Metrical Analysisp. 27
A Preference Rule System for Meterp. 30
Implementationp. 39
Testsp. 42
Problems and Possible Improvementsp. 44
Other Factors in Metrical Structurep. 48
Choosing the Right Tactusp. 52
Melodic Phrase Structurep. 55
Musical Grouping and Phrase Structurep. 55
Studies of Musical Grouping in Psychologyp. 56
Models of Grouping Structurep. 60
A Preference Rule System for Melodic Phrase Structurep. 65
Implementation and Testsp. 71
Grouping in Polyphonic Musicp. 76
Contrapuntal Structurep. 85
Counterpointp. 85
Sequential Integration in Auditory Psychologyp. 87
Computational Models of Contrapuntal Analysisp. 91
A Preference Rule System for Contrapuntal Analysisp. 96
Implementationp. 102
Testsp. 106
Pitch Spelling and the Tonal-Pitch-Class Representationp. 115
Pitch-Class, Harmony, and Keyp. 115
Spatial Representations in Music Theoryp. 116
Tonal-Pitch-Class Labelingp. 123
A Preference Rule System for Tonal-Pitch-Class Labelingp. 124
Implementationp. 132
Testsp. 134
Harmonic Structurep. 137
Harmonyp. 137
Experimental and Computational Work on Harmonic Analysisp. 139
A Preference Rule System for Harmonic Analysisp. 147
Implementationp. 154
Some Subtle Features of the Modelp. 159
Testsp. 162
Other Aspects of Harmonic Structurep. 164
Key Structurep. 167
Keyp. 167
Psychological and Computational Work on Keyp. 168
The Krumhansl-Schmuckler Key-Finding Algorithmp. 173
Improving the Algorithm's Performancep. 176
Modulationp. 187
Implementationp. 188
Testsp. 191
An Alternative Approach to Modulationp. 198
Extensions and Implicationsp. 203
Revision, Ambiguity, and Expectationp. 205
Diachronic Processing and Ambiguityp. 205
Modeling the Diachronic Processing of Musicp. 206
Examples of Revisionp. 210
Revision in Tonal Analysisp. 215
Synchronic Ambiguityp. 219
Ambiguity in Contrapuntal Structurep. 224
Ambiguity in Meterp. 228
Expectationp. 231
Meter, Harmony, and Tonality in Rockp. 237
Beyond Common-Practice Musicp. 237
Syncopation in Rockp. 239
Applications and Extensions of the Syncopation Modelp. 247
Harmony in Rockp. 253
Modality and Tonicization in Rockp. 258
Meter and Grouping in African Musicp. 265
African Rhythmp. 265
Meter in African Musicp. 268
How Is Meter Inferred?p. 272
Western and African Meter: A Comparisonp. 276
Hemiolas and the "Standard Pattern"p. 279
"Syncopation Shift" in African Musicp. 282
Grouping Structure in African Musicp. 286
Conclusionsp. 289
Style, Composition, and Performancep. 291
The Study of Generative Processes in Musicp. 291
Describing Musical Styles and Compositional Practicep. 292
Further Implications: Is Some Music "Nonmetrical"?p. 299
Preference Rules as Compositional Constraints: Some Relevant Researchp. 305
Preference Rule Scores and Musical Tensionp. 307
Performancep. 317
Functions of the Infrastructurep. 325
Beyond the Infrastructurep. 325
Motivic Structure and Encodingp. 326
Musical Schematap. 336
Tension and Energyp. 339
The Functions of Harmony and Tonalityp. 340
Arbitrarinessp. 345
Explaining Musical Details: An Exercise in Recompositionp. 349
The Power of Common-Practice Musicp. 354
List of Rulesp. 357
Notesp. 361
Referencesp. 381
Author Indexp. 393
Subject Indexp. 397
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262701051
ISBN-10: 0262701057
Series: The MIT Press
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 422
Published: 20th August 2004
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 17.8  x 1.9
Weight (kg): 0.66