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The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes : Vol 57 - Howard Griffith

The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes

Vol 57

By: Howard Griffith (Editor), Paul Jarvis (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 7th April 2005
ISBN: 9781859962145
Number Of Pages: 356

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The importance of forests in alleviating climate change processes is a matter of global concern and debate, at a time when politicians are close to implementing carbon trading quotas. "Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes" provides an informed synthesis on the current status of forests and their future potential for carbon sequestration. This volume is timely, since convincing models which scale from local to regional carbon fluxes are needed to support these international agreements, while criticisms have been leveled at existing empirical approaches. One key question is to determine how well eddy-flux measurements at the stand-level represent regional-scale processes. This may be related to specific management practices (age, plantation, fertilization) or simple bias in choosing representative sites (ease of access, roughness, proximity to physical barriers). The ecology and regeneration state of temperate, tropical and boreal forests under current climatic conditions are discussed, together with partitioning of photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes from soils and vegetation. The volume considers how to integrate contrasting methodologies, and the latest approaches for scaling from stand to the planetary boundary layer.

Contributorsp. xiii
Abbreviationsp. xvii
Prefacep. xxi
The global imperative and policy for carbon sequestrationp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Climate changep. 2
The carbon cyclep. 3
The Kyoto Protocolp. 4
Quantitative potential for LULUCF activitiesp. 6
The technical debatep. 8
Technical detail of processes and quantitiesp. 8
Methodological issuesp. 8
Implementation issuesp. 9
Criticisms of supposed failings and potential scamsp. 9
Accounting options for sinks in later commitment periodsp. 11
Indirect anthropogenic effectsp. 11
Wall-to-wall accountingp. 12
Other options for sink accountingp. 13
Conclusionsp. 14
Referencesp. 15
Role of forest biomes in the global carbon balancep. 19
Introduction: defining the questions about carbon sinksp. 19
How much carbon is extracted annually from the atmosphere by forests and other biomes?p. 20
Net primary productivityp. 20
Net ecosystem productivityp. 21
Net biome productivityp. 23
Where are the sinks?p. 23
Sinks at stand scale using forest inventoryp. 23
Sinks at forest scale using eddy covariancep. 25
Sinks resulting from land-use changep. 26
Sinks at regional and global scalesp. 26
What controls the strength of sinks?p. 28
Atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrationp. 29
Temperaturep. 29
Nitrogenp. 29
A simple model to estimate sink strengthp. 29
Will the sinks endure?p. 30
Decomposition and global warmingp. 31
Photosynthesis, CO[subscript 2] concentration, and nutritionp. 31
Lack of waterp. 31
What observation networks are required to monitor the sinks?p. 32
Land-based: eddy covariance with forest inventoryp. 32
Atmospheric modelsp. 32
Remote sensing of CO[subscript 2]p. 33
Remote sensing of the land surfacep. 33
Remote sensing of biomassp. 33
An observation networkp. 34
What are the feedbacks to the carbon cycle?p. 34
Emergent properties of forest ecosystemsp. 34
Thinking about feedbacksp. 36
Is it feasible to manage forests as sinks?p. 37
The Kyoto chargep. 37
Clean development mechanism projectsp. 38
Theoretical and possible sink capacities, and what cannot be countedp. 38
Concluding remarksp. 39
Acknowledgementsp. 40
Referencesp. 40
Carbon sequestration in European croplandsp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Fluxes of carbon from European croplandsp. 47
Management options for carbon sequestrationp. 48
Biological and realistically achievable potential for carbon sequestration for cropland management options in Europep. 48
Duration of soil carbon sequestration and permanence of soil carbon sinksp. 49
Measurement, monitoring, and verification of soil carbon sequestrationp. 50
Carbon sequestration as part of integrated policies promoting sustainability: a 'no regrets' policyp. 51
Summaryp. 52
Conclusionsp. 53
Acknowledgementsp. 53
Referencesp. 53
Estimating forest and other terrestrial carbon fluxes at a national scale: the UK experiencep. 57
Introductionp. 57
Changes in forests and other woody biomass stocksp. 58
Methods used for UK national Greenhouse Gas Inventoryp. 58
Fluxes associated with afforestation of deep peatsp. 63
Wood productsp. 67
Mapping of UK forest carbon uptakep. 67
Forest and grassland conversion (deforestation)p. 69
Other removals and emissions of CO[subscript 2] within the land-use change and forestry sectorp. 70
Changes in soil carbon resulting from non-forest land-use changep. 71
Emissions of CO[subscript 2] resulting from liming agricultural soilsp. 72
Emissions of CO[subscript 2] resulting from drainage of fenlandsp. 72
Emissions of CO[subscript 2] from peat extracted for use as fuel and in horticulturep. 73
Changes in crop biomass resulting from agricultural managementp. 73
Emissions of CO[subscript 2] in other sectors and comparison with the Land-Use Change and Forestry sectorp. 73
Summaryp. 74
Acknowledgementsp. 75
Referencesp. 75
Regional-scale estimates of forest CO[subscript 2] and isotope flux based on monthly CO[subscript 2] budgets of the atmospheric boundary layerp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Atmospheric boundary layer description, scalar dynamics and the equilibrium assumptionp. 78
Equilibrium atmospheric boundary layer CO[subscript 2] flux methodp. 81
Isotopes in the equilibrium atmospheric boundary layerp. 84
Conclusionsp. 87
Referencesp. 88
Regional measurement and modelling of carbon balancesp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Convective boundary layer budgetingp. 96
Eddy correlation flux aircraftp. 99
Regional mesoscale modellingp. 100
Discussion and conclusionsp. 103
Acknowledgementsp. 105
Referencesp. 105
The potential for rising CO[subscript 2] to account for the observed uptake of carbon by tropical, temperate, and Boreal forest biomesp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Observations of net primary productivityp. 110
Net primary productivity from detailed site studiesp. 110
Net primary productivity from spatially extensive forest biomass inventoriesp. 112
Estimation of net biome productivityp. 113
The problemsp. 113
Estimation of net biome productivity using the ecosystem inventory approachp. 114
Estimation of net biome productivity using the atmospheric inversion approachp. 114
Comparing results from the inventory and inversion approachesp. 115
Modelled net primary productivity and net biome productivityp. 121
Linking net biome productivity to rising atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrationp. 122
A simple carbon cycle modelp. 122
Results from Siberiap. 123
Results from Europep. 125
Results from Amazoniap. 126
What are the uncertainties?p. 126
Conclusionsp. 128
Summaryp. 129
Supplementary datap. 130
Referencesp. 142
Measurement of CO[subscript 2] exchange between Boreal forest and the atmospherep. 151
Introductionp. 151
Boreal landscape characteristicsp. 152
Importance of eddy covariance measurements in Boreal carbon balance studiesp. 154
Tower flux measurementsp. 155
Short-term eddy covariance studiesp. 156
Long-term eddy covariance studiesp. 161
Ecophysiological stand-scale flux measurementsp. 169
Chamber measurementsp. 169
Biometric carbon budgetingp. 170
Effects of disturbancep. 171
Upscaling eddy covariance measured fluxes to the biome scalep. 172
Aircraft-based eddy covariance fluxesp. 173
Estimating net biome productivityp. 174
Ecosystem process modelsp. 174
Convective boundary-layer budgeting approachp. 175
Stable isotope methodsp. 175
Atmospheric inverse modelsp. 176
Conclusionsp. 176
Achievementsp. 176
Where next?p. 177
Summaryp. 177
Acknowledgementsp. 178
Referencesp. 178
Carbon exchange of deciduous broadleaved forests in temperate and Mediterranean regionsp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Fundamental conceptsp. 188
Geographic distributionp. 188
Composition, form, and functionp. 189
Composition and formp. 189
Functionp. 191
Stand-scale carbon fluxesp. 196
Temporal dynamics of net ecosystem CO[subscript 2] exchangep. 197
Temperate deciduous forestsp. 197
Deciduous Mediterranean forestsp. 201
Canopy photosynthesisp. 204
Ecosystem respirationp. 204
Ecosystem carbon balancesp. 207
Future issuesp. 208
Acknowledgementsp. 208
Referencesp. 208
The carbon balance of the tropical forest biomep. 217
Tropical forests in the global carbon cyclep. 217
Deforestation and land-use changep. 218
The view from the atmospherep. 221
A carbon sink away from the degradation?p. 224
Pulling it all togetherp. 226
Implications of a biosphere carbon sink for biodiversityp. 227
Future prospectsp. 228
Acknowledgementsp. 232
Referencesp. 232
The carbon balance of forest soils: detectability of changes in soil carbon stocks in temperate and Boreal forestsp. 235
Introduction to soil carbon stocksp. 235
Background to sites compared in this studyp. 237
Perthshire, UKp. 237
Northumberland, UKp. 237
Les Landes, Francep. 238
Previous studies on soil carbon contentp. 239
Estimation of the mean and variance in soil carbon stocks across studiesp. 239
Estimation of minimum detectable differencep. 240
Soil carbon stocks in temperate biomesp. 241
Sampling procedurep. 241
Scaling of variance with plot sizep. 241
Factors affecting variancep. 243
Sampling intensity and related minimum detectable changesp. 246
Conclusions and summaryp. 247
Acknowledgementsp. 248
Referencesp. 248
Fractional contributions by autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to soil-surface CO[subscript 2] efflux in Boreal forestsp. 251
Introductionp. 251
What is respiring: what is autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in soils?p. 252
How do we separate autotrophic and heterotrophic soil activities?p. 255
Tree girdling: an alternative method to estimate autotrophic respirationp. 257
Effects of temperature on components of soil respirationp. 260
A new perspective on the debate about turnover rates of fine rootsp. 261
Summary and concluding remarksp. 262
Acknowledgementsp. 262
Referencesp. 263
Trace gas and CO[subscript 2] contributions of northern peatlands to global warming potentialp. 269
Introductionp. 269
Global emissions and radiative forcingp. 270
Northern peatlandsp. 271
Carbon dynamics in pristine miresp. 273
Measurements of greenhouse gas fluxesp. 273
Natural bogs and fensp. 276
Peatlands drained for forestryp. 279
Peatlands in agricultural usep. 280
Afforested peatfieldsp. 283
Cut-away and restored peatlandsp. 284
Climate changep. 285
Conclusionsp. 286
Acknowledgementsp. 287
Referencesp. 287
Contribution of trace gases nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and methane (CH[subscript 4]) to the atmospheric warming balance of forest biomesp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Approaches to estimate the biome fluxes and data sourcesp. 294
Nitrous oxide emissionp. 295
Methane uptakep. 298
Results and discussionp. 299
Nitrous oxide emission of forest biomesp. 299
Methane uptake of forest biomesp. 302
Contribution of CH[subscript 4] and N[subscript 2]O to the atmospheric warming balance of forests biomesp. 309
Acknowledgementsp. 310
Referencesp. 310
Effects of reforestation, deforestation, and afforestation on carbon storage in soilsp. 319
Introductionp. 319
Carbon storage in forest soilsp. 320
Effects of harvest and natural regeneration or reforestation on soil organic carbon poolsp. 322
Effects of deforestation on soil organic carbon poolsp. 323
Restoring cultivation-induced soil organic carbon losses by afforestationp. 324
Conclusionsp. 328
Summaryp. 328
Acknowledgementsp. 329
Referencesp. 329
'Carbon forestry': managing forests to conserve carbonp. 331
Multiple purpose forestryp. 331
Kyoto and two kinds of forestp. 332
What a forest doesp. 332
Trees and soilp. 334
Carbon budgets of forestsp. 334
Natural disturbancep. 335
Managerial disturbancep. 336
A case studyp. 337
A model investigation of thinningp. 340
What can we do?p. 342
Minimize soil disturbancep. 342
Increase gross primary productivityp. 342
Lock the gatep. 345
The wider perspectivep. 345
Conclusionsp. 346
Acknowledgementsp. 346
Referencesp. 346
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781859962145
ISBN-10: 1859962149
Series: Experimental Biology Reviews
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 356
Published: 7th April 2005
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.18 x 16.26  x 2.57
Weight (kg): 0.71
Edition Number: 1