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The Blue Laser Diode : The Complete Story - Shuji Nakamura

The Blue Laser Diode

The Complete Story

Hardcover Published: 28th August 2000
ISBN: 9783540665052
Number Of Pages: 368

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Shuji Nakamura's development of a blue semiconductor laser on the basis of GaN opens the way for a host of new applications of semiconductor lasers. The wavelengths can be tuned by controlling the composition. For the first time it is possible to produce lasers with various wavelengths, ranging from red through yellow and green to blue, in one substrate material. This fact, together with their high efficiency, makes GaN-based lasers very useful for a wide spectrum of applications. The second edition of this basic book on GaN-based devices has been updated and significantly extended. It includes a survey of worldwide research on GaN, as well as Nakamura's latest important developments. The reader finds a careful introduction to the physics and properties of GaN. The main part of the book deals with the production and characteristics of GaN LDs and LEDs. To complete the spectrum of applications, GaN power devices are also described.

Industry Reviews

FROM A REVIEW OF THE FIRST EDITION
"The technical chapters will be lapped up by semiconductor specialists keen to know more ... the book includes fascinating material that answers the question: why did Nakamura succeed where many, much larger, research groups failed."
(NEW SCIENTIST)

Introductionp. 1
LEDs and LDsp. 1
Group-III Nitride Compound Semiconductorsp. 3
Backgroundp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Applications and Markets for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Lasersp. 7
Who Were the Early Key Players in the Field?p. 10
Why InGaN/AlGaN?p. 11
Key Steps in the Discovery - Materials Issuesp. 13
Research History of Shuji Nakamura and Selected Steps in the Development of the Commercial Blue GaN LEDp. 15
Why Did Nichia Succeed Where Many Much Larger Multinationals and Research Groups Failed?p. 17
Additional Comments on Blue LED Researchp. 20
A Short Summary of the Physics of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDsp. 21
LEDsp. 23
Lasersp. 24
Physics of Gallium Nitride and Related Compoundsp. 29
Introductionp. 29
Crystal Structuresp. 29
Wurtzite versus Zincblende Structurep. 29
Growth of Wurtzite GaN onto Sapphirep. 31
Growth of Cubic (Zincblende) GaNp. 31
Growth of GaN onto Other Substratesp. 32
Electronic Band Structurep. 32
Fundamental Optical Transitionsp. 34
Band Structure Near the Fundamental Gapp. 35
Band Parameters and Band Offsets for GaN, AlN, and InNp. 36
Elastic Properties -Phononsp. 38
Other Properties of Gallium Nitridep. 38
Negative Electron Affinity (NEA)p. 41
Pyroelectricityp. 41
Transferred-Electron Effect (Gunn Effect)p. 41
Summary of Propertiesp. 42
GaN Growthp. 47
Growth Methods for Crystalline GaNp. 47
A New Two-Flow Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition System for GaN Growth (TF-MOCVD)p. 48
In Situ Monitoring of GaN Growth Using Interference Effectsp. 52
Introductionp. 52
Experimental Detailsp. 52
GaN Growth Without AlN Buffer Layerp. 54
GaN Growth with AlN Buffer Layerp. 59
Summaryp. 65
Analysis ofReal-Time Monitoring Using Interference Effectsp. 65
Introductionp. 65
Experimental Detailsp. 66
Results and Discussionp. 67
Summaryp. 75
GaN Growth Using GaN Buffer Layerp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Experimental Detailsp. 75
Results and Discussionp. 76
In Situ Monitoring and Hall Measurements of GaN Growth with GaN Buffer Layersp. 79
Introductionp. 79
Experimental Detailsp. 80
Results and Discussionp. 80
Summaryp. 88
p-Type GaN Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiationp. 89
Highly p-Type Mg-Doped GaN Films Grown with GaN Buffer Layersp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Experimental Detailsp. 89
Results and Discussionp. 90
High-Power GaN p-n Junction Blue Light Emitting Diodesp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Experimental Detailsp. 95
Results and Discussionp. 96
Summaryp. 101
n-Type GaNp. 103
Si- and Ge-Doped GaN Films Grown with GaN Buffer Layersp. 103
Experimental Detailsp. 104
Si Dopingp. 104
Ge Dopingp. 108
Mobility as a Function ofthe Carrier Concentrationp. 111
Summaryp. 112
p-Type GaNp. 113
History of p-Type GaN Researchp. 113
Thermal Annealing Effects on p-Type Mg-Doped GaN Filmsp. 114
Introductionp. 114
Experimental Detailsp. 114
Results and Discussionp. 114
Appendixp. 119
Hole Compensation Mechanism of p-Type GaN Filmsp. 120
Introductionp. 120
Experimental Detailsp. 120
Results and Discussion: Explanation of the Hole Compensation Mechanism of p-Type GaNp. 121
Summary: Hydrogen Passivation and Annealing of p-Type GaNp. 135
Properties and Effects of Hydrogen in GaNp. 136
Present State ofKnowledgep. 137
Passivationp. 140
Hydrogen in As-Grown GaNp. 141
Diffusion of H in Implanted or Plasma-Treated GaNp. 145
Summaryp. 147
InGaNp. 149
Introductory Remarks: The Role of Lattice Mismatchp. 149
High-Quality InGaN Films Grown on GaN Filmsp. 150
Introduction: InGaN on GaNp. 150
Experimental Details: InGaN on GaNp. 151
Results and Discussion: InGaN on GaNp. 151
Summary: InGaN on GaNp. 154
Si-Doped InGaN Films Grown on GaN Filmsp. 155
Introduction: Si-Doped InGaN on GaNp. 155
Experimental Details: Si-Doped InGaN on GaNp. 155
Results and Discussion: Si-Doped InGaN on GaNp. 155
Summary: Si-Doped InGaN on GaNp. 159
Cd-Doped InGaN Films Grown on GaN Filmsp. 160
Introduction: Cd-doped InGaN on GaNp. 160
Experimental Detailsp. 161
Results and Discussionp. 161
Summary: Cd-Doped InGaNp. 166
<$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlattices Grown on GaN Filmsp. 166
Introduction: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlatticesp. 166
Experiments: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlatticesp. 167
Results and Discussion: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlatticesp. 167
Summary: InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN Superlatticesp. 174
Growth of <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x}{\rm N}<$> Compound Semiconductors and High-Power InGaN/AlGaN Double Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodesp. 174
Introductionp. 174
Experimental Detailsp. 174
Growth and Properties of <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x}{\rm N}<$> Compound Semiconductorsp. 177
High Power InGaN/AlGaN Double Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodesp. 181
Summaryp. 183
p-GaN/n-InGaN/n-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodesp. 184
Experimental Detailsp. 184
Results and Discussionp. 184
Summaryp. 188
High-Power InGaN/GaN Double-Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodesp. 188
Zn and Si Co-Doped InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue and Blue-Green LEDsp. 193
Zn-Doped InGaN Growth and InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodesp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Experimental Detailsp. 194
Zn-Doped InGaNp. 194
InGaN/AlGaN DH Blue LEDsp. 198
Candela-Class High-Brightness InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodesp. 201
High-Brightness InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Green Light Emitting Diodesp. 203
A Bright Future for Blue-Green LEDsp. 207
Introductionp. 207
GaN Growthp. 209
InGaNp. 209
InGaN/AlGaN DH LEDp. 209
Summaryp. 214
InGaN Single-Quantum-Well LEDsp. 215
High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green, and Yellow LEDs with Quantum-Well Structuresp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Experimental Detailsp. 216
Results and Discussionp. 217
Summaryp. 220
High-Power InGaN Single-Quantum-Well Blue and Violet Light Emitting Diodesp. 220
Super-Bright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well Light Emitting Diodesp. 223
Introductionp. 223
Experimental Detailsp. 224
Results and Discussionp. 225
Summaryp. 229
White LEDsp. 230
Room-Temperature Pulsed Operation of Laser Diodesp. 237
InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodesp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Experimental Deatilsp. 237
Results and Discussionp. 239
Summaryp. 242
InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes with Cleaved Mirror Cavity Facetsp. 242
Introductionp. 242
Experimental Detailsp. 242
Results and Discussionp. 244
Summaryp. 247
InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes Grown on MgAl2O4 Substratesp. 247
Characteristics of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodesp. 252
The First III-V-Nitride-Based Violet Laser Diodesp. 256
Introductionp. 256
Experimental Detailsp. 256
Results and Discussionp. 258
Summaryp. 262
Optical Gain and Carrier Lifetime of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodesp. 262
Ridge-Geometry InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodesp. 268
Longitudinal Mode Spectra and Ultrashort Pulse Generation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodesp. 273
Emission Mechanisms of LEDs and LDsp. 279
InGaN Single-Quantum-Well (SQW)-Structure LEDsp. 279
Emission Mechanism of SQW LEDsp. 281
InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well (MQW)-Structure LDsp. 284
Summaryp. 289
Room Temperature CW Operation of InGaN MQW LDsp. 291
First Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes at 233 Kp. 291
First Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodesp. 296
RT CW Operation of InGaN MQW LDs with a Long Lifetimep. 301
Blue/Green Semiconductor Laserp. 305
Blue/Green LEDsp. 305
Bluish-Purple LDsp. 307
Summaryp. 313
RT CW InGaN MQW LDs with improved Lifetimep. 314
Latest Results: Lasers with Self-Organized InGaN Quantum Dotsp. 319
Introductionp. 319
Fabricationp. 319
Emission Spectrap. 320
Self-Organized InGaN Quantum Dotsp. 325
Advances in LEDsp. 326
Advances in Laser Diodesp. 328
Conclusionsp. 335
Summaryp. 335
Outlookp. 336
Appendixp. 339
Biographiesp. 343
Shuji Nakamurap. 343
Gerhard Fasolp. 344
Stephen Peartonp. 345
Referencesp. 347
Indexp. 361
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540665052
ISBN-10: 3540665056
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 28th August 2000
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 24.16 x 16.33  x 2.21
Weight (kg): 0.85
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised

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