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# The Blue Laser Diode

### The Complete Story

Hardcover Published: 28th August 2000
ISBN: 9783540665052
Number Of Pages: 368

### Hardcover

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Shuji Nakamura's development of a blue semiconductor laser on the basis of GaN opens the way for a host of new applications of semiconductor lasers. The wavelengths can be tuned by controlling the composition. For the first time it is possible to produce lasers with various wavelengths, ranging from red through yellow and green to blue, in one substrate material. This fact, together with their high efficiency, makes GaN-based lasers very useful for a wide spectrum of applications. The second edition of this basic book on GaN-based devices has been updated and significantly extended. It includes a survey of worldwide research on GaN, as well as Nakamura's latest important developments. The reader finds a careful introduction to the physics and properties of GaN. The main part of the book deals with the production and characteristics of GaN LDs and LEDs. To complete the spectrum of applications, GaN power devices are also described.

#### Industry Reviews

FROM A REVIEW OF THE FIRST EDITION
"The technical chapters will be lapped up by semiconductor specialists keen to know more ... the book includes fascinating material that answers the question: why did Nakamura succeed where many, much larger, research groups failed."
(NEW SCIENTIST)

 Introduction p. 1 LEDs and LDs p. 1 Group-III Nitride Compound Semiconductors p. 3 Background p. 7 Introduction p. 7 Applications and Markets for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Lasers p. 7 Who Were the Early Key Players in the Field? p. 10 Why InGaN/AlGaN? p. 11 Key Steps in the Discovery - Materials Issues p. 13 Research History of Shuji Nakamura and Selected Steps in the Development of the Commercial Blue GaN LED p. 15 Why Did Nichia Succeed Where Many Much Larger Multinationals and Research Groups Failed? p. 17 Additional Comments on Blue LED Research p. 20 A Short Summary of the Physics of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs p. 21 LEDs p. 23 Lasers p. 24 Physics of Gallium Nitride and Related Compounds p. 29 Introduction p. 29 Crystal Structures p. 29 Wurtzite versus Zincblende Structure p. 29 Growth of Wurtzite GaN onto Sapphire p. 31 Growth of Cubic (Zincblende) GaN p. 31 Growth of GaN onto Other Substrates p. 32 Electronic Band Structure p. 32 Fundamental Optical Transitions p. 34 Band Structure Near the Fundamental Gap p. 35 Band Parameters and Band Offsets for GaN, AlN, and InN p. 36 Elastic Properties -Phonons p. 38 Other Properties of Gallium Nitride p. 38 Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) p. 41 Pyroelectricity p. 41 Transferred-Electron Effect (Gunn Effect) p. 41 Summary of Properties p. 42 GaN Growth p. 47 Growth Methods for Crystalline GaN p. 47 A New Two-Flow Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition System for GaN Growth (TF-MOCVD) p. 48 In Situ Monitoring of GaN Growth Using Interference Effects p. 52 Introduction p. 52 Experimental Details p. 52 GaN Growth Without AlN Buffer Layer p. 54 GaN Growth with AlN Buffer Layer p. 59 Summary p. 65 Analysis ofReal-Time Monitoring Using Interference Effects p. 65 Introduction p. 65 Experimental Details p. 66 Results and Discussion p. 67 Summary p. 75 GaN Growth Using GaN Buffer Layer p. 75 Introduction p. 75 Experimental Details p. 75 Results and Discussion p. 76 In Situ Monitoring and Hall Measurements of GaN Growth with GaN Buffer Layers p. 79 Introduction p. 79 Experimental Details p. 80 Results and Discussion p. 80 Summary p. 88 p-Type GaN Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiation p. 89 Highly p-Type Mg-Doped GaN Films Grown with GaN Buffer Layers p. 89 Introduction p. 89 Experimental Details p. 89 Results and Discussion p. 90 High-Power GaN p-n Junction Blue Light Emitting Diodes p. 95 Introduction p. 95 Experimental Details p. 95 Results and Discussion p. 96 Summary p. 101 n-Type GaN p. 103 Si- and Ge-Doped GaN Films Grown with GaN Buffer Layers p. 103 Experimental Details p. 104 Si Doping p. 104 Ge Doping p. 108 Mobility as a Function ofthe Carrier Concentration p. 111 Summary p. 112 p-Type GaN p. 113 History of p-Type GaN Research p. 113 Thermal Annealing Effects on p-Type Mg-Doped GaN Films p. 114 Introduction p. 114 Experimental Details p. 114 Results and Discussion p. 114 Appendix p. 119 Hole Compensation Mechanism of p-Type GaN Films p. 120 Introduction p. 120 Experimental Details p. 120 Results and Discussion: Explanation of the Hole Compensation Mechanism of p-Type GaN p. 121 Summary: Hydrogen Passivation and Annealing of p-Type GaN p. 135 Properties and Effects of Hydrogen in GaN p. 136 Present State ofKnowledge p. 137 Passivation p. 140 Hydrogen in As-Grown GaN p. 141 Diffusion of H in Implanted or Plasma-Treated GaN p. 145 Summary p. 147 InGaN p. 149 Introductory Remarks: The Role of Lattice Mismatch p. 149 High-Quality InGaN Films Grown on GaN Films p. 150 Introduction: InGaN on GaN p. 150 Experimental Details: InGaN on GaN p. 151 Results and Discussion: InGaN on GaN p. 151 Summary: InGaN on GaN p. 154 Si-Doped InGaN Films Grown on GaN Films p. 155 Introduction: Si-Doped InGaN on GaN p. 155 Experimental Details: Si-Doped InGaN on GaN p. 155 Results and Discussion: Si-Doped InGaN on GaN p. 155 Summary: Si-Doped InGaN on GaN p. 159 Cd-Doped InGaN Films Grown on GaN Films p. 160 Introduction: Cd-doped InGaN on GaN p. 160 Experimental Details p. 161 Results and Discussion p. 161 Summary: Cd-Doped InGaN p. 166 <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlattices Grown on GaN Films p. 166 Introduction: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlattices p. 166 Experiments: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlattices p. 167 Results and Discussion: <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x} {\rm N}/{\rm In}_y{\rm Ga}_{1-y}{\rm N}<$> Superlattices p. 167 Summary: InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN Superlattices p. 174 Growth of <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x}{\rm N}<$> Compound Semiconductors and High-Power InGaN/AlGaN Double Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodes p. 174 Introduction p. 174 Experimental Details p. 174 Growth and Properties of <$>{\rm In}_x{\rm Ga}_{1-x}{\rm N}<$> Compound Semiconductors p. 177 High Power InGaN/AlGaN Double Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodes p. 181 Summary p. 183 p-GaN/n-InGaN/n-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodes p. 184 Experimental Details p. 184 Results and Discussion p. 184 Summary p. 188 High-Power InGaN/GaN Double-Heterostructure Violet Light Emitting Diodes p. 188 Zn and Si Co-Doped InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue and Blue-Green LEDs p. 193 Zn-Doped InGaN Growth and InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodes p. 193 Introduction p. 193 Experimental Details p. 194 Zn-Doped InGaN p. 194 InGaN/AlGaN DH Blue LEDs p. 198 Candela-Class High-Brightness InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue Light Emitting Diodes p. 201 High-Brightness InGaN/AlGaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Green Light Emitting Diodes p. 203 A Bright Future for Blue-Green LEDs p. 207 Introduction p. 207 GaN Growth p. 209 InGaN p. 209 InGaN/AlGaN DH LED p. 209 Summary p. 214 InGaN Single-Quantum-Well LEDs p. 215 High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green, and Yellow LEDs with Quantum-Well Structures p. 215 Introduction p. 215 Experimental Details p. 216 Results and Discussion p. 217 Summary p. 220 High-Power InGaN Single-Quantum-Well Blue and Violet Light Emitting Diodes p. 220 Super-Bright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well Light Emitting Diodes p. 223 Introduction p. 223 Experimental Details p. 224 Results and Discussion p. 225 Summary p. 229 White LEDs p. 230 Room-Temperature Pulsed Operation of Laser Diodes p. 237 InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes p. 237 Introduction p. 237 Experimental Deatils p. 237 Results and Discussion p. 239 Summary p. 242 InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes with Cleaved Mirror Cavity Facets p. 242 Introduction p. 242 Experimental Details p. 242 Results and Discussion p. 244 Summary p. 247 InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes Grown on MgAl2O4 Substrates p. 247 Characteristics of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes p. 252 The First III-V-Nitride-Based Violet Laser Diodes p. 256 Introduction p. 256 Experimental Details p. 256 Results and Discussion p. 258 Summary p. 262 Optical Gain and Carrier Lifetime of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes p. 262 Ridge-Geometry InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes p. 268 Longitudinal Mode Spectra and Ultrashort Pulse Generation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes p. 273 Emission Mechanisms of LEDs and LDs p. 279 InGaN Single-Quantum-Well (SQW)-Structure LEDs p. 279 Emission Mechanism of SQW LEDs p. 281 InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well (MQW)-Structure LDs p. 284 Summary p. 289 Room Temperature CW Operation of InGaN MQW LDs p. 291 First Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes at 233 K p. 291 First Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes p. 296 RT CW Operation of InGaN MQW LDs with a Long Lifetime p. 301 Blue/Green Semiconductor Laser p. 305 Blue/Green LEDs p. 305 Bluish-Purple LDs p. 307 Summary p. 313 RT CW InGaN MQW LDs with improved Lifetime p. 314 Latest Results: Lasers with Self-Organized InGaN Quantum Dots p. 319 Introduction p. 319 Fabrication p. 319 Emission Spectra p. 320 Self-Organized InGaN Quantum Dots p. 325 Advances in LEDs p. 326 Advances in Laser Diodes p. 328 Conclusions p. 335 Summary p. 335 Outlook p. 336 Appendix p. 339 Biographies p. 343 Shuji Nakamura p. 343 Gerhard Fasol p. 344 Stephen Pearton p. 345 References p. 347 Index p. 361 Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540665052
ISBN-10: 3540665056
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 28th August 2000
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 24.16 x 16.33  x 2.21
Weight (kg): 0.85
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised

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