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The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease - Megan Brickley

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease

Hardcover Published: 1st June 2008
ISBN: 9780123704863
Number Of Pages: 333

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"The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease" provides a comprehensive and invaluable source of information on this important group of diseases. It is an essential guide for those engaged in either basic recording or in-depth research on human remains from archaeological sites. The range of potential tools for investigating metabolic diseases of bone are far greater than for many other conditions, and building on clinical investigations, this book will consider gross, surface features visible using microscopic examination, histological and radiological features of bone, that can be used to help investigate metabolic bone diseases.
*Clear photographs and line drawings illustrate gross, histological and radiological features associated with each of the conditions.
*Covers a range of issues pertinent to the study of metabolic bone disease in archaeological skeletal material, including the problems that frequent co-existence of these conditions in individuals living in the past raises, the preservation of human bone and the impact this has on the ability to suggest a diagnosis of a condition.
*Includes a range of conditions that can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, including previous investigations of these conditions in archaeological bone.

Industry Reviews

"[Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease] takes us along a fascinating exploratory journey of the main (and not so common) metabolic bone diseases identifiable in skeletal remains. Useful supporting tables, and clear photographic images and line drawings, supplement the text, with a concluding chapter providing a view of future research...."

Professor Charlotte A. Roberts
Department of Archaeology
Durham University

"The authors' cogent discussion of how elements within a given lifestyle, including diet/nutrition, cultural practices, socio-economic status, and the surrounding environment, can significantly impact the health of individuals and of societies is illustrated with abundant well-chosen anthropological examples. This volume will be of great value to all scholars devoted to accurate, informative reconstructions of past human life."

Mary Lucas Powell, Ph.D.
Past Editor, Paleopathology Newsletter
The Paleopathology Association

Acknowledgementsp. xi
Forewordp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Metabolic Bone Disease: A Definitionp. 2
Format of the Bookp. 3
The Study of Metabolic Bone Disease in Bioarchaeologyp. 7
Approaches to the Study of Metabolic Bone Diseasep. 7
Challenges in the Investigation of Metabolic Bone Diseasep. 10
Museum Collectionsp. 10
Archaeological Human Bonep. 11
Paleopathological Diagnosesp. 17
Demographic Issuesp. 18
Modern Medical Datap. 18
Genetics and Anthropologyp. 19
Cultural and Social Anthropologyp. 19
Nutritional and Medical Anthropologyp. 20
Primatologyp. 20
Conclusionsp. 20
Background to Bone Biology and Mineral Metabolismp. 21
Bone Tissue: Cortical and Trabecular Bonep. 21
Different Types of Bone Structure: Woven Bone and Lamellar Bonep. 22
Bone Cellsp. 24
Modelling and Remodelling: Growth and Adulthoodp. 28
Mechanisms of Growthp. 28
Modellingp. 28
Remodellingp. 29
Bone Mineralisation: The Extracellular Matrix (osteoid)p. 30
Tooth Formation and Mineralisationp. 32
Reasons for Remodellingp. 32
Bone Biology in Context of the Life Coursep. 33
Bone Biology in Fracture Healingp. 34
Mineral Metabolism During Lifep. 36
Extracellular Mineral Metabolismp. 36
Conclusionsp. 40
Vitamin C Deficiency Scurvyp. 41
Causes of Vitamin C Deficiencyp. 41
Sources of Vitamin Cp. 41
Scurvy and Weaningp. 45
The Role of Vitamin Cp. 47
Vitamin C Requirementsp. 47
Consequences of Scurvyp. 48
Consequences for Adultsp. 48
Consequences for Childrenp. 49
Scurvy in the Modern Perspectivep. 49
Anthropological Perspectivesp. 51
Reference to Probable Scurvy in Early Textsp. 51
Subsistence Change and the Development of Scurvy: The Origins of Agriculturep. 52
A More Recent View of Scurvy in the Pastp. 54
Paleopathological Cases of Scurvyp. 54
Diagnosis of Scurvy in Archaeological Bonep. 56
Macroscopic Features of Infantile Scurvyp. 56
Macroscopic Features of Adult Scurvyp. 61
Radiological Features of Infantile Scurvyp. 62
Radiological Features of Adult Scurvyp. 63
Histological Features of Infantile Scurvyp. 65
Histological Features of Adult Scurvyp. 67
Differential Diagnosisp. 69
Scurvy in Non-Human Primates: A Result of Human Actionsp. 71
Conclusionsp. 71
Summary of Published Archaeological Evidence for Vitamin C Deficiencyp. 72
Vitamin D Deficiencyp. 75
The Skeletal Requirement of Vitamin Dp. 75
Terminologyp. 77
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiencyp. 77
Sunlightp. 77
Cultural Practices and Sunlight Exposurep. 81
Skin Pigmentation and Genetic Adaptationsp. 81
Food Sourcesp. 82
Pregnancy and Lactationp. 84
Increased Agep. 86
Age-Related Osteoporosisp. 87
Additional Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency with Effects on Mineral Metabolismp. 87
Ricketsp. 90
Consequences of Ricketsp. 91
Historical Recognition of Ricketsp. 92
Rickets in the Modern Perspectivep. 92
Anthropological Perspectives: Ricketsp. 94
Beyond Fighting: The Physiological Impact of Warfarep. 96
Paleopathological Cases of Ricketsp. 96
Diagnosis of Rickets in Archaeological Bonep. 97
Macroscopic Features of Ricketsp. 97
Radiological Features of Ricketsp. 100
Histological Features of Ricketsp. 101
Residual Rickets in the Anthropological Perspective: Adult Evidence of Childhood Vitamin D Deficiencyp. 102
Diagnosis of Residual Rickets in Archaeological Bonep. 109
Macroscopic Features of Residual Ricketsp. 109
Radiological Features of Residual Ricketsp. 112
Histological Features of Ricketsp. 112
Co-Morbiditiesp. 113
Differential Diagnosisp. 114
Vitamin D Deficiency Osteomalaciap. 114
Pseudofracturesp. 118
Adult Vitamin D Deficiency in the Modern Perspectivep. 119
Physical and Non-Violent Manifestations of Abusep. 122
Anthropological Perspectives: Osteomalaciap. 123
Paleopathological Cases of Osteomalaciap. 123
Diagnosis of Osteomalacia in Archaeological Bonep. 125
Macroscopic Features of Osteomalaciap. 125
Radiological Features of Osteomalaciap. 125
Histological Features of Osteomalaciap. 126
Conclusionsp. 133
Summary of Published Archaeological Evidence for Vitamin D Deficiencyp. 134
Age-Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosisp. 151
Definitions of Osteoporosisp. 151
Causes of Age-Related Osteoporosisp. 152
Menopausep. 152
Increased Agep. 153
Peak Bone Massp. 155
Mechanical Loadingp. 155
Extremes of Exercisep. 156
Continuing Sub-Periosteal Appositionp. 157
Genetics and Population Groupsp. 157
Nutrition and Lifestylep. 158
Skeletal Features of Age-Related Osteoporosisp. 158
Consequences of Age-Related Osteoporosis: Fracturesp. 158
Distal Radius Fractures (Colles' Fractures)p. 160
Vertebral Fracturesp. 163
Femoral Fracturesp. 167
Osteoporosis in the Modern Perspectivep. 170
Anthropological Perspectivesp. 171
Historical and Anthropological Perspectives of Agingp. 172
Age-Related Osteoporosis in Menp. 172
Animal Studies in Osteoporosis I: Age-Related Bone Lossp. 173
Problems in the Determination of Age-Related Bone Changes in Biological Anthropologyp. 175
Paleopathological Cases of Age-Related Osteoporosisp. 176
Co-Morbiditiesp. 179
Diagnosis of Age-Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Archaeological Bonep. 179
Macroscopic Features of Osteoporosisp. 179
Radiological Features of Osteoporosisp. 179
Histological Changes of Osteoporosisp. 182
Conclusionsp. 183
Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosisp. 185
Causes of Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosisp. 185
Osteopenia and Mobilityp. 185
Effects of Immobilisationp. 186
Animal Studies in Osteoporosis II: Immobilisation-Related Osteopeniap. 187
Trauma and Causes of Immobilityp. 188
Non-Long Bone Trauma and Additional Causes of Disuse Osteoporosisp. 188
Bone Loss in Infectious Diseasesp. 192
Immobility in Viral Conditionsp. 197
Congenital and Developmental Conditionsp. 197
Osteopenia in Spinal Cord or Neuromuscular System Afflictionsp. 197
Implications of Immobility and Inferences of Disabilityp. 198
Osteopenia in Pathological Conditionsp. 199
Joint Diseasep. 199
Hematopoietic Conditionsp. 200
Neoplastic and Malignant Conditionsp. 200
The Influence of Diet on Osteoporosis Riskp. 202
Dietary Acid Load and Proposed Mechanisms of Bone Lossp. 202
Calciump. 202
Proteinp. 205
Fatty Acidsp. 207
Fruit and Vegetablesp. 207
Anthropological Perspectivesp. 209
Calcium in the Evolutionary Perspectivep. 209
The Effect of Meat Eating on Calcium Adequacyp. 211
The Health of Adaptive and Transitional Diets: Integrated Approaches?p. 212
Calcium Availability with the Onset of Domesticationp. 213
Diagnosis of Secondary Osteopenia in Archaeological Bonep. 216
Conclusionsp. 216
Paget's Disease of Bonep. 217
Possible Causes of Paget's Diseasep. 217
Animal Paleopathologyp. 219
Consequences of Paget's Diseasep. 219
Pelvic Changesp. 221
Cranial Changesp. 221
Long Bone Changesp. 222
Other Bones that can be Affectedp. 223
Co-Morbiditiesp. 224
Paget's Disease in the Modern Perspectivep. 225
Age and Sexp. 225
Geographic Variationp. 226
Anthropological Perspectivesp. 226
Paleopathological Cases of Paget's Diseasep. 226
Diagnosis of Paget's Disease in Archaeological Bonep. 230
Macroscopic Features of Paget's Diseasep. 230
Radiological Features of Paget's Diseasep. 231
Histological Features of Paget's Diseasep. 237
Differential Diagnosisp. 238
The Contribution of Paleopathology to Modern Medicinep. 238
Conclusionsp. 239
Miscellaneous Conditionsp. 241
Fluorosisp. 241
Consequences of Fluorosisp. 241
Dental Fluorosisp. 241
Skeletal Fluorosisp. 242
Co-Morbiditiesp. 243
Fluorosis in the Modern Perspectivep. 243
Anthropological Perspectives: Fluorosisp. 245
Paleopathological Cases of Fluorosisp. 247
Other Conditions Linked to Intoxicationp. 249
Hyperparathyroidismp. 250
Causes of Hyperparathyroidismp. 250
Primary Hyperparathyroidismp. 250
Secondary Hyperparathyroidismp. 250
Consequences of Hyperparathyroidismp. 251
Anthropological Perspectives: Hyperparathyroidismp. 251
Paleopathological Cases of Hyperparathyroidismp. 252
Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism in Archaeological Bonep. 252
Pellagrap. 252
Anthropological Investigations of Displaced Peoplesp. 256
Starvationp. 257
Malnutrition, Starvation and Osteoporosisp. 258
Rare Metabolic Bone Diseasesp. 258
Hyperostosisp. 258
Hypophosphatasiap. 259
Osteogenesis Imperfectap. 260
Osteopetrosisp. 260
Conclusionsp. 260
Overview and Directions for Future Researchp. 261
Bone Biologyp. 261
Vitamin C Deficiency, Scurvyp. 262
Vitamin D Deficiency, Rickets and Osteomalaciap. 262
Age-Related Osteoporosisp. 263
Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosisp. 264
Paget's Disease of Bonep. 265
Miscellaneous Metabolic Bone Diseasesp. 265
Conclusionsp. 265
Bibliographyp. 267
Indexp. 321
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780123704863
ISBN-10: 0123704863
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 333
Published: 1st June 2008
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.95  x 2.49
Weight (kg): 0.65
Edition Number: 1

Earn 278 Qantas Points
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