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The Atmospheric Boundary Layer : Cambridge Atmospheric & Space Science - J. R. Garratt

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Cambridge Atmospheric & Space Science

Paperback Published: 20th June 1994
ISBN: 9780521467452
Number Of Pages: 336

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A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

'An excellent review of the current state of affairs on boundary-layer meteorology research.' Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 'I find that it compares favourably to good texts that have appeared recently; I strongly recommend it as a synthesis of present thinking on physical processes in the atmospheric boundary layer.' Waves in Random Media.

Prefacep. ix
Symbolsp. xi
Abbreviationsp. xvii
The atmospheric boundary layerp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Historyp. 3
Observing the ABLp. 5
ABL modellingp. 5
Applicationsp. 6
Scope of the bookp. 7
Nomenclature and some definitionsp. 8
Notes and bibliographyp. 12
Basic equations for mean and fluctuating quantitiesp. 15
Turbulence and flow descriptionp. 15
Governing equations for mean and fluctuating quantitiesp. 20
The simplified mean equationsp. 25
The turbulence closure problemp. 26
The second-moment equationsp. 29
Turbulent kinetic energy and stability parametersp. 32
Notes and bibliographyp. 38
Scaling laws for mean and turbulent quantitiesp. 40
The wind profile: simple considerationsp. 40
Wind profile laws: the neutral casep. 42
Monin-Obukhov similarity theory: the non-neutral surface layerp. 49
Generalized ABL similarity theoryp. 60
Similarity theory and turbulence statisticsp. 70
Notes and bibliographyp. 82
Surface roughness and local advectionp. 85
Aerodynamic characteristics of the landp. 85
Scalar roughness lengthsp. 89
The vegetation canopyp. 93
Flow over the seap. 97
Local advection and the internal boundary layerp. 104
Notes and bibliographyp. 113
Energy fluxes at the land surfacep. 115
Surface energy balance and soil heat fluxp. 115
Radiation fluxesp. 120
Evaporationp. 125
Condensationp. 139
Notes and bibliographyp. 143
The thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layerp. 145
The convective boundary layerp. 145
The stable (nocturnal) boundary layerp. 164
The marine atmospheric boundary layerp. 182
Mesoscale flow and IBL growthp. 186
Notes and bibliographyp. 191
The cloud-topped boundary layerp. 193
General properties of the CTBLp. 194
Observationsp. 200
Radiation fluxes and cloud-top radiative coolingp. 207
Entrainment and entrainment instabilityp. 212
Numerical modelling of the CTBLp. 216
Notes and bibliographyp. 222
Atmospheric boundary-layer modelling and parameterization schemesp. 224
Introductionp. 224
Surface temperaturep. 226
Surface humidity (soil moisture)p. 229
Canopy parameterizationp. 235
Surface fluxesp. 243
Rate equation for ABL depthp. 244
Turbulence closure schemesp. 245
ABL cloud parameterizationp. 256
Notes and bibliographyp. 257
The atmospheric boundary layer, climate and climate modellingp. 258
Introductionp. 258
Sensitivity of climate to the ABL and to land surfacep. 262
Research prioritiesp. 267
Notes and bibliographyp. 277
Appendicesp. 279
Referencesp. 294
Indexp. 311
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521467452
ISBN-10: 0521467454
Series: Cambridge Atmospheric & Space Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 336
Published: 20th June 1994
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.65 x 19.13  x 1.85
Weight (kg): 0.59