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The Art of Electronics - Paul Horowitz

Hardcover Published: 29th June 2015
ISBN: 9780521809269
Number Of Pages: 1220

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Cambridge University Press Australia informed us, that they ran out of stock but more copies are expected around the 11th March 2016.

Product Description

At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful The Art of Electronics.

It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the third edition includes 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits, dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that is often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits, and 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts.

The new Art of Electronics retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

About the Author

Paul Horowitz is Professor of Physics at Harvard University, where he originated the Laboratory Electronics course in 1974, from which emerged The Art of Electronics. He was one of the pioneers of the search for intelligent life beyond the Earth, and one of the leaders behind SETI. Other research interests include observational astrophysics, x-ray and particle microscopy, and optical interferometry. He is the author of some 200 scientific articles and reports, has consulted widely for industry and government, and is the designer of numerous electronic and photographic instruments.

Winfield Hill has held positions at numerous organisations, including Harvard University's Electronic Design Center and Sea Data Corporation. Currently he is the Director of Electronics Engineering at the Rowland Institute for Science where he has designed some 250 electronic instruments. Recent interests include high-voltage RF (to 15kV) and precision high-current electronics (to 6000A).

Industry Reviews

'Who among us has not kept a cherished copy of AoE on our workbench throughout our careers? Engineers, hackers and makers of all stripes, rejoice for the third edition ... has been worth the wait! Packed with tons of delicious knowledge to navigate electronics in both work and hobby. An encyclopedia of electronics knowledge, [The Art of Electronics] is a pleasure to read through for tips and tricks and is an unbeatable resource! Take a day out to read a chapter - you will learn things you didn't even know you didn't know. Or, refer to the pinouts, diagrams, and techniques as necessary to guide you through a difficult project. If you think electrical engineering is magical then you must pick up this tome!' Limor 'Ladyada' Fried, Adafruit Industries
'First of all, after I forklifted [Chapter 5] onto my reading table, I sat down and read it. It is simply spectacular. That may be overly exclamatory language but it is the only appropriate verbiage I can summon. Spectacular, deep and wide. I especially like the comments about interpreting specifications and the deconstruction of the Agilent voltmeters is just, well, wonderful.' Jim Williams, Linear Technology Corp
'Wow. Chapter 5 details every circuit artifact that I've encountered in the past thirty years in a through, pragmatic, and straightforward way. My only 'twinge' is that [it] disclosed and explained (in glorious graphical detail and with real part numbers) many topics that I thought were my personal trade secrets ... I love the plots. I know that it must take an enormous effort to collate all of the device characteristics. It's worth the effort. The way ... [it] present[s] the data allows the reader to get terrific perspective on a lot of landscape in a single view. Nice work.' John Willison, founder, Stanford Research Systems
'Horowitz and Hill's third edition beautifully upgrades their earlier work, with substantial updates to detail, and without compromise to style, content, or technical quality. Like the second edition I've used for years, it is laser-focused on the working engineer. Delivered in folksy Horowitz and Hill style, it is rich with the kind of nitty-gritty information that's invaluable to circuit designers and manufacturers, much of which is absent (or difficult to find) elsewhere. This new book is a superb update, one which I'm sure will be treasured by those close to the art of analog circuitry.' Walt Jung, author, IC Op-Amp Cookbook
'This epic work was created by two of the best experts in the field (with many others providing information). It defines the current state of the art in electronics ... Most parts of the book will continue to be relevant for several decades. The 1124 pages (even more densely packed with highly accurate information than the pages of the second edition) will delight everyone who already knows about electronics ... It is almost certain that you will like the third edition even more than the second ... The information that is now available in the book is absolutely fantastic, both the quality and the quantity, and you should get [it] as soon as you can ...' Wise Warthog blog
'If you are looking for a handy and very practical electronics reference book, this is a good one. I think you will enjoy it. Thanks to Horowitz and Hill for updating this classic.' Lou Frenzel, Electronic Design (electronicdesign.com)
'If you are a hobbyist or maker who wants to acquire or improve a well-rounded knowledge of electronics then The Art of Electronics is an ideal book for you. It starts from the very basics of voltage, current and resistance without getting heavily dependent on physics theory or mathematics, and proceeds to cover a huge variety of interesting topics. For electronic engineering students, [this book] ... will help you develop the intuitive understanding, which will make it easier to put the maths in context, and it will be invaluable when you do practical work for design projects. The Art of Electronics brilliantly conveys its authors' enthusiasm and experience of practical engineering and is an inspiring read. Many people have described the earlier editions as the best book on electronics, so [this third edition] had a lot to live up to; fortunately, it does not disappoint. It deserves its gold cover.' Ian Bell, Everyday Practical Economics
'I believe the strength of this book stems from the authors' background in physics ... The key being that electronics is not their primary interest. This 'application perspective' is most evident in their presentation: the material is presented with the goal of understanding the behavior of electronic devices, circuits, and systems before the nitty-gritty details of calculating the behaviour ... The authors are also liberal in their use of commercially available parts in their presentation, something rarely, if ever, seen in a typical textbook. There is an abundance of warning, based on real-world experience, of the many traps that lie in wait for the practitioner of the electronic art ... In spite of the analog bent, the digital information in this book is an excellent source for the analog engineer to get started using digital systems for the control of analog circuits. All in all, a highly recommended addition to the working engineer's bookshelf. ' Greg Oshiro , Journal of the Audio Engineering Society
"Who among us has not kept a cherished copy of AoE on our workbench throughout our careers? Engineers, hackers and makers of all stripes, rejoice for the third edition ... has been worth the wait! Packed with tons of delicious knowledge to navigate electronics in both work and hobby. An encyclopedia of electronics knowledge, [The Art of Electronics] is a pleasure to read through for tips and tricks and is an unbeatable resource! Take a day out to read a chapter - you will learn things you didn't even know you didn't know. Or, refer to the pinouts, diagrams, and techniques as necessary to guide you through a difficult project. If you think electrical engineering is magical then you must pick up this tome!" Limor 'Ladyada' Fried, Adafruit Industries
"First of all, after I forklifted [Chapter 5] onto my reading table, I sat down and read it. It is simply spectacular. That may be overly exclamatory language but it is the only appropriate verbiage I can summon. Spectacular, deep and wide. I especially like the comments about interpreting specifications and the deconstruction of the Agilent voltmeters is just, well, wonderful." Jim Williams, Linear Technology Corp
"Wow. Chapter 5 details every circuit artifact that I've encountered in the past thirty years in a through, pragmatic, and straightforward way. My only 'twinge' is that [it] disclosed and explained (in glorious graphical detail and with real part numbers) many topics that I thought were my personal trade secrets ... I love the plots. I know that it must take an enormous effort to collate all of the device characteristics. It's worth the effort. The way ... [it] present[s] the data allows the reader to get terrific perspective on a lot of landscape in a single view. Nice work." John Willison, founder, Stanford Research Systems
"Horowitz and Hill's third edition beautifully upgrades their earlier work, with substantial updates to detail, and without compromise to style, content, or technical quality. Like the second edition I've used for years, it is laser-focused on the working engineer. Delivered in folksy Horowitz and Hill style, it is rich with the kind of nitty-gritty information that's invaluable to circuit designers and manufacturers, much of which is absent (or difficult to find) elsewhere. This new book is a superb update, one which I'm sure will be treasured by those close to the art of analog circuitry." Walt Jung, author, IC Op-Amp Cookbook
"This epic work was created by two of the best experts in the field (with many others providing information). It defines the current state of the art in electronics ... Most parts of the book will continue to be relevant for several decades. The 1124 pages (even more densely packed with highly accurate information than the pages of the second edition) will delight everyone who already knows about electronics ... It is almost certain that you will like the third edition even more than the second ... The information that is now available in the book is absolutely fantastic, both the quality and the quantity, and you should get [it] as soon as you can ..." Wise Warthog blog
"If you are looking for a handy and very practical electronics reference book, this is a good one. I think you will enjoy it. Thanks to Horowitz and Hill for updating this classic." Lou Frenzel, Electronic Design (electronicdesign.com)
"If you are a hobbyist or maker who wants to acquire or improve a well-rounded knowledge of electronics then The Art of Electronics is an ideal book for you. It starts from the very basics of voltage, current and resistance without getting heavily dependent on physics theory or mathematics, and proceeds to cover a huge variety of interesting topics. For electronic engineering students, [this book] ... will help you develop the intuitive understanding, which will make it easier to put the maths in context, and it will be invaluable when you do practical work for design projects. The Art of Electronics brilliantly conveys its authors' enthusiasm and experience of practical engineering and is an inspiring read. Many people have described the earlier editions as the best book on electronics, so [this third edition] had a lot to live up to; fortunately, it does not disappoint. It deserves its gold cover." Ian Bell, Everyday Practical Economics
'I believe the strength of this book stems from the authors' background in physics ... The key being that electronics is not their primary interest. This `application perspective' is most evident in their presentation: the material is presented with the goal of understanding the behavior of electronic devices, circuits, and systems before the nitty-gritty details of calculating the behaviour ... The authors are also liberal in their use of commercially available parts in their presentation, something rarely, if ever, seen in a typical textbook. There is an abundance of warning, based on real-world experience, of the many traps that lie in wait for the practitioner of the electronic art ... In spite of the analog bent, the digital information in this book is an excellent source for the analog engineer to get started using digital systems for the control of analog circuits. All in all, a highly recommended addition to the working engineer's bookshelf. ' Greg Oshiro , Journal of the Audio Engineering Society

The. Electronic Design Bible.

5

An extremely good book for those with a STEM background and a keen interest in electronics, need a refresher and/or want to develop a deep level of understanding required to overcome the intricacies of electronic design.

Melbourne, AU

true

I would recommend this book to my friends

5

Daily read, for interest.

Doncaster, VIC

true

The 'Holy Grail' of electronics books

5

There is no better book for gathering this amount of electronics knowledge in one place. It's not for beginners, but it is an invaluable reference manual for anyone delving into any aspect of electronics.

Sydney, Australia

true

The Art Of Electronics

5.0 3

100.0

Chapter 7: Precision Circuits and Low-Noise Techniques

In the preceding chapters we have dealt with many aspects of analog circuit design, including the circuit properties of passive devices, transistors, FETs, and op-amps, the subject of feedback, and numerous applications of these devices and circuit methods. In all our discussions, however, we have not yet addressed the question of the best that can be done, for example, in minimizing amplifier errors (nonlinearities, drifts, etc.) and in amplifying weak signals with minimum degradation by amplifier "noise." In many applications these are the most important issues, and they form an important part of the art of electronics. In this chapter, therefore, we will look at methods of precision circuit design and the issue of noise in amplifiers. With the exception of the introduction to noise in Section 7.11, this chapter can be skipped over in a first reading. This material is not essential for an understanding of later chapters.

Precision Op-Amp Design Techniques

In the field of measurement and control there is often a need for circuits of high precision. Control circuits should be accurate, stable with time and temperature, and predictable. The usefulness of measuring instruments likewise depends on their accuracy and stability. In almost all electronic subspecialties we always have the desire to do things more accurately -- you might call it the joy of perfection. Even if you don't always actually need the highest precision, you can still delight in the joy of fully understanding what's going on.

7.01: Precision versus dynamic range

It is easy to get confused between the concepts ofprecision and dynamic range, especially since some of the same techniques are used to achieve both. Perhaps the difference can best be clarified by some examples: A 5-digit multimeter has high precision; voltage measurements are accurate to 0.01% or better. Such a device also has wide dynamic range; it can measure millivolts and volts on the same scale. A precision decade amplifier (one with selectable gains of 1, 10, and 100, say) and a precision voltage reference may have plenty of precision, but not necessarily much dynamic range. An example of a device with wide dynamic range but only moderate accuracy might be a 6-decade logarithmic amplifier (log amp) built with carefully trimmed op-amps but with components of only 5% accuracy; even with accurate components a log amp might have limited accuracy because of lack of log conformity (at the extremes of current) of the transistor junction used for the conversion. Another example of a wide-dynamic-range instrument (greater than 10,000:1 range of input currents) with only moderate accuracy (1%) is the coulomb meter described in Section 9.26. It was originally designed to keep track of the total charge put through an electrochemical cell, a quantity that needs to be known only to approximately 5% but that may be the cumulative result of a current that varies over a wide range. It is a general characteristic of wide-dynamic-range design that input offsets must be carefully trimmed in order to maintain good proportionality for signal levels near zero; this is also necessary in precision design, but, in addition, precise components, stable references, and careful attention to every possible source of error must be used to keep the sum total of all errors within the so-called error budget.

7.02: Error budget

A few words on error budgets. There is a tendency for the beginner to fall into the trap of thinking that a few strategically placed precision components will result in a device with precision performance. On rare occasions this will be true. But even a circuit peppered with 0.01% resistors and expensive op-amps won't perform to expectations if somewhere in the circuit there is an input offset current multiplied by a source resistance that gives a voltage error of 10mV, say. With almost any circuit there will be errors arising all over the place, and it is essential to tally them up, if for no other reason than to locate problem areas where better devices or a circuit change might be needed. Such an error budget results in rational design, in many cases revealing where an inexpensive component will suffice, and eventually permitting a careful estimate of performance.

7.03: Example circuit: precision amplifier with automatic null offset

In order to motivate the discussion of precision circuits, we have designed an extremely precise decade amplifier with automatic offset. This gadget lets you "freeze" the value of the input signal, amplifying any subsequent changes from that level by gains of exactly 10, 100, or 1000. This might come in particularly handy in an experiment in which you wish to measure a small change in some quantity (e.g., light transmission or radiofrequency absorption) as some condition of the experiment is varied. It is ordinarily difficult to get accurate measurements of small changes in a large dc signal, owing to drifts and instabilities in the amplifier. In such a situation a circuit of extreme precision and stability is required. We will describe the design choices and errors of this particular circuit in the framework of precision design in general, thus rendering painless what could otherwise become a tedious exercise. A note at the outset: Digital techniques offer an attractive alternative to the purely analog circuitry used here. Look forward to exciting revelations in chapters to come!

Circuit descriptionThe basic circuit is a follower (U1) driving an inverting amplifier of selectable gain (U2), the latter offsettable by a signal applied to its noninverting input. Q1 and Q2 are FETs, used in this application as simple analog switches; Q3 - Q5 generate suitable levels, from a logic-level input, to activate the switches. Q1 through Q5 and their associated circuitry could all be replaced by a relay, or even a switch, if desired, For now, just think of it as a simple SPST switch.

When the logic input is HIGH ("autozero"), the switch is closed, and U3 charges the analog "memory" capacitor (C1) as necessary to maintain zero output. No attempt is made to follow rapidly changing signals, since in the sort of application for which this was designed the signals are essentially dc, and some averaging is a desirable feature. When the switch is opened, the voltage on the capacitor remains stable, resulting in an output signal proportional to the wanderings of the input thereafter.

There are a few additional features that should be described before going on to explain in detail the principles of precision design as applied here: (a) U4 participates in a first-order leakage-current compensation scheme, whereby the tendency of C1 to discharge slowly through its own leakage (100,000M, minimum, corresponding to a time constant of 2 weeks!) is compensated by a small charging current through R15 proportional to the voltage across C1. (b) Instead of a single FET switch, two are used in series in a "guarded leakage-cancellation" arrangement. The small leakage current through Q2, when switched OFF, flows to ground through R23, keeping all terminals of Q1 within millivolts of ground. Without any appreciable voltage drops, Q1 hasn't any appreciable leakage! (See Section 4.15 and Fig. 4.50 for similar circuit tricks.) (c) The offsetting voltage generated at the output of U3 is attenuated by R11 - R14, according to the gain setting. This is done to avoid problems with dynamic range and accuracy in U3, since drifts or errors in the offset holding circuitry are not amplified by U2 (more on this later).

7.04: A precision-design error budget

For each category of circuit error and design strategy we will devote a few paragraphs to a general discussion, followed by illustrations from the preceding circuit. Circuit errors can be divided into the categories of (a) errors in the external network components, (b) op-amp (or amplifier) errors associated with the input circuitry, and (c) op-amp errors associated with the output circuitry. Examples of the three are resistor tolerances, input offset voltage, and errors due to finite slew rate, respectively.

Let's start by setting out our error budget. It is based on a desire to keep input errors down to the 10µV level, output drift (from capacitor "droop") below 1mV in 10 minutes, and gain accuracy in the neighborhood of 0.01%. As with any budget, the individual items are arrived at by a process of trade-offs, based on what can be done with available technology. In a sense the budget represents the end result of the design, rather than the starting point. However, it will aid our discussion to have it now.

Error budget (worst-case values)

1. Buffer amplifier (U1)
    Voltage errors referred to input:
Temperature               1.2µV/4°C
Time                           1.0µV/month
Power supply              0.3µV/100mV change
Bias current x RS        2.0µV/1k of RS
Load-current heating   0.3µV @ full scale (10V)

2. Gain amplifier (U2)
    Voltage errors referred to input:
Temperature                     1.2µV/4°C
Time                                 1.0µV/month
Power supply                    0.3µV/100mV change
Bias offset current drift      1.6µV/4°C/lk
Load-current heating         0.3µV @ full scale (RL = 10k)

3. Hold amplifier (U3)
    Voltage errors referred to output:
U3 offset tempco                   60µV/4°C
Power supply                        10µV/100mV change
Capacitor droop                    100µV/min
    (see current error budget)
Charge transfer                      10µV

Current errors applied to C1 (needed for preceding voltage error budget):
Capacitor leakage
    Maximum (uncompensated)         (100pA)
    Typical (compensated)                 l0pA
U3 input current                               0.2pA
U3 & U4 offset voltage across R15   1.0pA
FET switch OFF leakage                 0.5pA
Printed-circuit-board leakage           5.0pA

The various items in the budget will make sense as we discuss the choices faced in this particular design. We will organize by the categories of circuit errors listed earlier: network components, amplifier input errors, and amplifier output errors. ...
List of tables
Preface
Preface to first edition
Chapter 1: Foundations
Chapter 2: Transistors
Chapter 3: Field-effect transistors
Chapter 4: Feedback and operational amplifiers
Chapter 5: Active filters and oscillators
Chapter 6: Voltage regulators and power circuits
Chapter 7: Precision circuits and low-noise techniques
Chapter 8: Digital electronics
Chapter 9: Digital meets analog
Chapter 10: Microcomputers
Chapter 11: Microprocessors
Chapter 12: Electronic construction techniques
Chapter 13: High-frequency and high-speed techniques
Chapter 14: Low-power design
Chapter 15: Measurements and signal processing
Appendix A: The oscilloscope
Appendix B: Math review
Appendix C: The 5% resistor color code
Appendix D: 1% Precision resistors
Appendix E: How to draw schematic diagrams
Appendix F: Load lines
Appendix G: Transistor saturation
Appendix H: LC Butterworth filters
Appendix I: Electronics magazines and journals
Appendix J: IC prefixes
Appendix K: Data sheets
Bibliography
Index

ISBN: 9780521809269
ISBN-10: 0521809266
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 1220
Published: 29th June 2015
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 26.04 x 20.96  x 5.08
Weight (kg): 2.32
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised

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