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The Ambiguous Embrace : Government and Faith-Based Schools and Social Agencies - Charles L. Glenn

The Ambiguous Embrace

Government and Faith-Based Schools and Social Agencies

By: Charles L. Glenn, Peter L. Berger (Foreword by)

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Published: 21st January 2002
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This is a time of far-reaching change and debate in American education and social policy, spurred in part by a rediscovery that civil-society institutions are often better than government at meeting human needs. As Charles Glenn shows in this book, faith-based schools and social agencies have been particularly effective, especially in meeting the needs of the most vulnerable. However, many oppose providing public funds for religious institutions, either on the grounds that it would threaten the constitutional separation of church and state or from concern it might dilute or secularize the distinctive character of the institutions themselves. Glenn tackles these arguments head on. He builds a uniquely comprehensive and persuasive case for faith-based organizations playing a far more active role in American schools and social agencies. And, most importantly, he shows that they could do so both while receiving public funds and while striking a workable balance between accountability and autonomy.

Glenn is ideally placed to make this argument. A leading expert on international education policies, he was for many years the director of urban education and civil rights for the Massachusetts Department of Education, and also serves as an Associate Minister of inner-city churches in Boston. Glenn draws on all his varied experience here as he reviews the policies and practices of governments in the United States and Europe as they have worked with faith-based schools and also with such social agencies as the Salvation Army and Teen Challenge. He seeks to answer key theoretical and practical questions: Why should government make greater use of faith-based providers? How could they do so without violating First Amendment limits? What working relationships protect the goals and standards both of government and of the organizations that the government funds? Glenn shows that, with appropriate forms of accountability and a strong commitment to a distinctive vision of service, faith-based organizations can collaborate safely with government, to their mutual benefit and that of those they serve. This is a major contribution to one of the most important topics in political and social debate today.

"[T]houghtful and thought provoking."--Raymond Rohrer Roberts, Christian Century

Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introduction
Mediating Structuresp. 3
School Choicep. 5
Norm-Maintaining Institutionsp. 6
Putting Them Togetherp. 7
Focus of the Studyp. 9
Outline of This Bookp. 11
Reaching Out to Civil Societyp. 13
Challenges to the Welfare Statep. 13
The Inescapable Welfare Statep. 14
Bureaucratic Ineffectivenessp. 15
Overstepping the State's Appropriate Limitsp. 17
Government and Educationp. 19
The State's Appropriate Rolep. 21
What the Civil Society Strategy is Notp. 23
Administrative Decentralizationp. 23
Market Strategiesp. 25
Organizational Flexibilityp. 25
The Promised Contribution of Voluntary Associationsp. 27
Voluntary Associations Under Pressurep. 32
The Religious Factorp. 33
Dangers Ahead?p. 37
Controlling Faith-Based Institutions to Deathp. 39
Self-Betrayal on the Part of Voluntary Organizationsp. 40
Strings without Moneyp. 42
The Stakes in Government Oversightp. 43
Oversight of Faith-Based Schoolsp. 46
Faith-Based Schools That Resist Oversightp. 46
The Scope of Government Regulation of Nonpublic Schoolsp. 49
The United Statesp. 49
Western Europep. 56
Summaryp. 60
Interlude: Teen Challengep. 62
How Close an Embrace?p. 74
Three Ways of Understanding Government's Relationship to Religionp. 74
Outside the Wall of Separationp. 79
Faith-Based Social Services: Where the Wall Is Not So Highp. 84
Schools: The Unhappy Exceptionp. 86
The Double Bind Created by "Pervasively Sectarian" Analysisp. 90
New Cracks in the Wall of Separationp. 94
Summaryp. 97
Funding with Government Oversightp. 99
How Much Oversight?p. 100
Modes of Fundingp. 104
Contractingp. 105
Charitable Choicep. 107
Francep. 110
Vouchersp. 112
Child Care Vouchersp. 112
School Vouchers in Milwaukeep. 115
The Voucher Debatep. 116
Grants and Other Subsidiesp. 119
Grants to Nonpublic Schools in Europep. 120
Shared Spacep. 123
Franchisep. 126
Asset Salep. 126
Summaryp. 129
Interlude: Neocorporatism in Europep. 131
The Netherlandsp. 136
The Identity of Denominational Schoolsp. 143
Summing Upp. 150
Germanyp. 151
Distinctiveness of Staffp. 155
Distinctiveness of Programp. 157
Summing Upp. 161
Conclusionsp. 163
Professional Normsp. 165
Professional Norms and Governmentp. 165
Semiprofessionalismp. 173
How Professional Norms Developedp. 176
Professional Trainingp. 181
Professional Norms and Faith-Based Organizationsp. 186
Summaryp. 192
Employment Decisionsp. 193
A Tale of Two Citiesp. 194
Licit Employment Discrimination on the Basis of Religionp. 196
The Right to a Shared Vision of Servicep. 199
Required Qualificationsp. 209
Summaryp. 211
Interlude: The Salvation Armyp. 212
How Did the Salvation Army Become Different?p. 215
The Salvation Army's Self-Understandingp. 220
Elements of the Salvation Army's Persistence as a Faith-Based Organizationp. 223
Threats to the Salvation Army's Distinctive Missionp. 225
Resisting the Lure of Popularityp. 234
Loss--and Recovery--of Nervep. 241
The Importance of Maintaining Distinctivenessp. 247
When Sacred and Secular Mixp. 251
Recovering Identity: The Dutch Debatesp. 257
Being Explicit about Identityp. 262
Summaryp. 265
Recommendationsp. 266
Should Government Make a Greater Use of Faith-Based Organizations to Provide Social Services and Education?p. 267
Respect for a Pluralistic Social Orderp. 267
Concern for Effectivenessp. 269
May the United States Government Make a Greater Use of Faith-Based Organizations without Overstepping the Limits Set by the First Amendment?p. 270
If it Makes a Greater Use of Faith-Based Organizations to Provide Social Services and Education, How Should Government Behave to Avoid Spoiling Their Distinctive Character and Contribution?p. 271
What Measures Should Government Take to Ensure That Making a Greater Use of Faith-Based Organizations Does Not Lead to Negative Consequences, Such as a Decline in Quality and Availability of Services or an Increase in Discrimination?p. 275
Accountabilityp. 276
Problems with Accountabilityp. 278
Equity Effetsp. 281
Financial Accountabilityp. 284
Alternative Modes of Service and Controlp. 286
Should Faith-Based Organizations Seek Government Support for Their Social and Educational Ministries?p. 286
In Accepting Government Support, How Should Faith-Based Organizations Protect Themselves from Interference with Their Core Mission and Distinctive Character?p. 289
Holding on to the Visionp. 290
Resisting Temptationp. 290
Style of Servicep. 291
Employment Decisionsp. 291
Standing Up to Governmentp. 292
How Can Faith-Based Organizations Reconcile Professional Norms with the Maintenance and Expression of Their Core Mission and Distinctive Character?p. 293
Involved Boardsp. 293
Professional Self-Understandingp. 294
Peer Accountabilityp. 294
Putting Them Togetherp. 295
Referencesp. 297
Indexp. 311
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691092805
ISBN-10: 069109280X
Series: New Forum Books
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 336
Published: 21st January 2002
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.52  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.47