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Test Anxiety : Applied Research, Assessment, and Treatment Interventions - Marty Sapp

Test Anxiety

Applied Research, Assessment, and Treatment Interventions

Paperback Published: 28th January 1999
ISBN: 9780761813866
Number Of Pages: 436

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Test Anxiety adapts the previous edition to the influence of structural equations modeling that has taken hold of test anxiety research, while maintaining the applied research, assessment, and treatment interventions. This book integrates statistical methodology and research design with actual research situations that occur within the test anxiety area. It brings together more than 100 studies that have been published on test anxiety since 1993. Marty Sapp introduces the logics of structural equations and shows how the EQS structural equations program can easily perform structural equations modeling. He presents two statistical packages, SPSSX and SAS, for use in conducting test anxiety research and developing actual empirically based treatment interventions. This allows an easy analysis using common factors such as Sarason's four-factor model or Spielberger's two-factor model. Test Anxiety provides a practical, cutting edge resource for conducting and assessing test anxiety research.

...the book is incredibly well-written...the author communicates in a strikingly clear, straightforward, and importantly, concise manner. ...a valuable handbook consisting of tools and information that will facilitate the research process.--Apa Review Of Books

Preface to First Editionp. iv
Preface to Second Editionp. v
Preface to Students and Social Scientistsp. vi
Applied Researchp. 1
Variables Employed in Test Anxiety Researchp. 3
Variablesp. 5
Confounding Variablesp. 5
Independent Variablesp. 5
Dependent Variablesp. 5
Moderator Variablesp. 6
Control Variablesp. 6
Intervening Variablesp. 7
Suppressor Variablesp. 7
Exercisesp. 7
Summaryp. 8
Internal Validityp. 9
Threats to Internal Validityp. 11
Historyp. 11
Maturationp. 12
Pretest Sensitizationp. 12
Selectionp. 12
Statistical Regressionp. 12
Experimental Mortality or Attritionp. 13
Instrumentationp. 13
Statistical Errorp. 13
Expectation Effectsp. 14
Double- and Single-Blind Controls for Expectation Effectsp. 14
Exercisesp. 14
Summaryp. 15
Difficulties that Occur with Test Anxiety Researchp. 17
External Validityp. 19
Difficulties that Occur with Test Anxiety Researchp. 19
Hawthorne Effectp. 19
Demand Characteristicsp. 19
Evaluation Apprehensionp. 20
Social Desirabilityp. 20
Placebo Effectp. 20
Controlling the Hawthorne Effectp. 20
Reactivityp. 21
Pretest and Posttest Sensitizationp. 21
Generalization of Resultsp. 21
Summaryp. 21
Common Research Designsp. 23
One-Group Designsp. 25
Independent Two-Group Designsp. 26
Related Two-Group Designsp. 27
Multiple Treatment Designsp. 28
Factorial Designsp. 28
Solomon Designp. 29
Quasi-Experimental Designsp. 31
Time-Series Designsp. 31
Nonequivalent Control Group Designsp. 33
Equivalent Time-Samplesp. 34
Counterbalanced Designsp. 35
Nested Designsp. 37
Exercisesp. 40
Summaryp. 40
Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Variabilibilityp. 43
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 45
Averagesp. 45
Meanp. 45
Modep. 45
Medianp. 45
Characteristics of the Meanp. 46
When to Use the Modep. 48
When to Use the Medianp. 49
Skewed Distributionsp. 49
When to Use the Meanp. 52
Measuresp. 52
Standard Deviationp. 52
Variancep. 52
Computer Examples for Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Variabilityp. 55
SPSSX Release 4.0p. 56
Applications of the Mean and Standard Deviation to the Normal Curvep. 63
Moments: Measures of Skewness and Kurtosisp. 64
Summaryp. 67
Exercisesp. 68
Common Univariate Statisticsp. 71
Hypothesis Testingp. 73
t-test for Independent Groupsp. 78
t-test for Related or Correlated Groupsp. 89
t-test a Special Case of Correlation or Regressionp. 93
One-way Analysis of Variancep. 94
SPSSX Power Estimate and Effect Size Measuresp. 103
Two-way ANOVAp. 105
Disporportional Cell Size or Unbalanced Factorial Designsp. 118
Planned Comparisons and the Tukey Post Hoc Procedurep. 123
One-Way Analysis of Covariancep. 141
Post Hoc Procedures for ANCOVAp. 149
SPSSX Control Lines for Factorial Analysis of Covariancep. 150
Nested Designsp. 151
Summaryp. 155
Multivariate Research Statistical Methodology Using SPSSX and SASp. 161
One-Group Repeated Measures ANOVAp. 162
Assumptions of Repeated Measuresp. 162
Violations of Sphericity Assumptionp. 163
Controversy in Calculations of Greenhouse Epsilon Statisticp. 164
Tukey Post Hoc Procedure for One-Group Repeated Measures Designp. 170
Tukey Confidence Intervals for One-Group Repeated Measures ANOVAp. 171
One-Group Repeated Measures ANOVA Exercisesp. 172
Multiple Regressionp. 178
Steps for Cross-Validating Regression Equationsp. 176
Number of Recommended Subjects Per Predictor for Regression Equationsp. 177
Relationship Among R[superscript 2], Y, and Fp. 178
Assumptions of Multiple Regressionp. 178
When Regression Assumptions Appear to Be Violatedp. 184
Six Methods of Selecting Predictors and Regression Modelsp. 184
SPSSX Control Lines for Running the Backward Elimination Processp. 187
Multiple Regression Exercisesp. 197
K Group MANOVAp. 197
Assumptions of MANOVAp. 198
SPSSX for K Group MANOVAp. 199
K Group MANOVA Exercisesp. 202
Factorial Multivariate Analysis of Variancep. 202
Factorial MANOVA Exercisesp. 205
Multivariate Analysis of Covariance: Three Covariates and Three Dependent Variablesp. 205
Factorial MANCOVA: One Covariate and Two Dependent Variablesp. 208
One-Way MANCOVA Exercisesp. 209
Post Hoc Procedures for MANCOVAp. 209
Nested MANOVAp. 210
Summaryp. 215
Choosing a Statistical Procedurep. 216
Statistical Application Exercisesp. 218
Measurement Issuesp. 225
Measurement Issuesp. 227
Measurement Issuesp. 229
Testing the Dimensionality of the Worry Component or the Test Anxiety Inventory with Economically and Educationally At-Risk High School Students: Employing Item Response Theory Analysis and Principal Components Analysisp. 230
Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling Using EQSp. 251
Overview of Structural Equation Modelsp. 253
Elements of the EQS Control Languagep. 256
EQS Path Analysisp. 257
Selected Output from EQS path Analysisp. 258
EQS Confirmatory Factor Analysisp. 258
Selected Output from Confirmatory Factor Analysisp. 259
Confirmatory Factor Analysis Exercisep. 261
Identificationp. 263
Model Modificationp. 263
Summaryp. 264
Assessmentp. 267
Assessmentp. 269
Constructs of Test Anxietyp. 271
Defining Test Anxietyp. 272
Parent-Child Interactions and the Development of Test Anxietyp. 272
Measuring Test Anxiety in Childrenp. 273
The School Environment, Motivation, Learned Helplessness, and Test Anxietyp. 275
Self-Efficacy and Test Anxietyp. 276
Measuring Test-Wisenessp. 278
The Components of Test Anxietyp. 279
Recommendations for Parentsp. 284
Test Anxiety and Performancep. 286
Test Anxiety Measures for Adolescents and Adultsp. 287
The Development of Mathematical Test Anxietyp. 293
Test Anxiety in the Academically At-Riskp. 294
Summaryp. 296
Treatment Interventionsp. 319
Treatment Interventionsp. 321
Psychotherapy Efficacyp. 323
Research to Support Treatment Scripts for Test Anxietyp. 325
Appropriate Clientele and Qualifications for Treatment Scriptsp. 327
Introduction to Study Skills Counseling Scriptp. 328
Study Skills Counseling Session 1p. 328
Study Skills counseling Session 2p. 329
Study Skills Counseling Session 3p. 330
Study Skills Counseling Session 4p. 332
Supportive Counseling Scriptp. 334
Introduction to Relaxation Therapy Scriptp. 338
Relaxation Therapy Session 1p. 340
Relaxation Therapy Session 2p. 344
Relaxation Therapy Session 3p. 347
Relaxation Therapy Session 4p. 349
Systematic Desensitizationp. 351
Summary of Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnosis Therapy Scriptp. 356
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapyp. 366
Appendixp. 375
Percent Area Under the Normal Curve Between the Mean and Zp. 377
Critical Values of tp. 378
Critical Values of Fp. 380
Percentage Points of the Studentized Rangep. 385
Critical Values for Bryant-Paulson Procedurep. 389
The Hartley F-MAX Test for Homogeneity of Variancesp. 392
Critical Values for Dunnett's Testp. 394
Critical Values of Pearson rp. 395
Critical Values of r[subscript s] (Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient)p. 397
Critical Value of Chi-Squarep. 398
A Table of Random Numbersp. 400
Author Indexp. 403
Subject Indexp. 411
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780761813866
ISBN-10: 0761813861
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 436
Published: 28th January 1999
Publisher: UNIV PR OF AMER
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.73 x 15.01  x 2.31
Weight (kg): 0.54
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised