This volume is based on the proceedings of an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) held October 1987 in Corfu, Greece. The Institute received financial support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, U.S.A. Department of Energy, U.S.A. Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.v., Kaln, Germany The advent of the shuttle era is providing fresh impetus for large space ventures such as communication centers, solar power stations, astronomical observatories, orbiting factories, and space based radar. Such ventures will rely heavily on an extensive and prolonged human presence in space doing in-orbit construction, maintenance, and opera- tion. Among the advantages of location in space are the near zero gravity environment, commanding location, and the reception of solar energy and astronomical signals unattenuated by the atmosphere. Central to long-term manned space missions are the problems associated with the effects of exposure to ionizing radiations on humans.
Manned space mis- sions in the past have encountered relatively benign radiation environ- ments because of their very short duration and orbit configuration. However, crew stay time of up to a year has been recently achieved by the Soviet space program; and Mars missions lasting several years are under serious consideration.
Radiation Environment in Space.- The Earth's Trapped and Transient Space Radiation Environment.- Ambient Electron Density Distribution at About 500 km Altitude at the Earth's Ionosphere.- The Space Radiation Environment at 840 km.- Solar Proton Event Forecasts.- Radiation Hazards in Low Earth Orbit, Polar Orbit, Geosynchronous Orbit, and Deep Space.- Analysis of the Radiative Risk During Hermes Mission.- Biological Effects of Space Radiation.- Heavy Ion Effects.- Heavy Ion Effects on Cells: An Approach to Theoretical Understanding.- Cosmic Ray HZE Particle Effects in Biological Systems: Results of Experiments in Space.- Effects of Low and High LET Radiation on Neoplastic Transformation in Cells and the Importance of Single Track Effects in Space.- Effects of LET, Fluence and Particle Energy on Inactivation, Chromosomal Aberrations and DNA Strand Breaks.- Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Chinese Hamster Cells After Heavy Ion Irradiation.- Heavy Ion Radiation Effects on Single Spores of Bacillus Subtilis.- Biological Action of Heavy Ion Irradiation on Individual Yeast Cells.- Delta-Electron Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions.- Genetic Effects.- The Role of Repair Processes in Cellular and Genetical Response to Radiation.- Reactions of Genetic Systems to Heavy Ions: Acute and Late Effects.- Nature of Radiation Induced Mutations. Experimental Approaches on the Question of Intragenic Events.- Genetic and Developmental Responses of Radiation Sensitive Mutants of the Nematode, C. elegans, to Ultraviolet, High and Low LET Radiation.- Ionizing Radiation Induced Mutagenesis: Molecular Genetic Changes and Role of DNA Lesions and Repair.- Cellular Effects.- Radiation Physics Related to Biology.- Biochemistry of Subcellular and Cellular Radiation Effects.- High Energy Proton Induced Mutations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Cells.- Cultures of Erythroleukemic Cells (K-562) on a Stratospheric Balloon Flight.- Transposition of Retrotransposons After Gamma and UV Irradiation.- Flow Cytometry Techniques for the Study of Irradiated Hematopoietic Stem Cells.- The Kinetics of UV-Induced Thymine Dimerization.- Effects of Ultrahigh Vacuum and UV Irradiation on Transforming DNA of Haemophilus Influenzae.- Effect of High-Vacuum, Deep Temperatures and VUV Irradiation on Bacterial Spores.- Physiology Radiobiology.- Selected Examples of Degenerative Late Effects Caused by Particulate Radiations in Normal Tissues.- Delayed Effects of Proton Irradiation in the Lens and Integument: A Primate Model.- Life Shortening and Causes of Death in Experimental Animals Following Whole-Body Exposure to Ionizing Radiation.- Acute Radiation Syndromes in Man.- Extrapolation of Animal Data to Man.- Radiation Induced Damage to the Regenerative Capacity of Surgically Traumatized Rat Femur After Single Doses of X-Rays.- Cardiopulmonary Effects Following Local Irradiation of the Heart in Adult Male Wistar/Neuherberg Rats.- Post-Irradiation Alterations in Cerebral Blood Flow.- Analysis of the Involvement of the Terrestrial Space Radiation in the Microgravity Effects on DrosophilaMelanogaster Development and Aging.- Behavioral and Neurobiological Aspects.- Current Trends in Behavioral Radiobiology.- Effects of Iron Particles on Behavior and Brain Function: Initial Studies.- Correlative Motor Behavioral and Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations Induced by 56Fe Radiation.- Protection From Space Radiation.- Variation of Galactic Cosmic Radiation by Solar Modulation, Geomagnetic Shielding and Shielding by Material.- Radiation Problems in Manned Spaceflight - European Efforts.- Space Radiation Exposures for Manned Polar Missions: A Parametric Study.- Protection of Polar Platforms from Penetrating Radiation.- Galactic Cosmic Radiation Doses to Astronauts Outside the Magnetosphere.- DNA and Radioprotection.- Excision Repair is Enhanced by WR-2721 Radioprotection.- Impact of Spaceflight Environment on Radiation Response.- Radiation Protection Guidelines for Space Missions.- Dosimetry.- Space Radiation Dosimetry on U.S. and Soviet Manned Missions.- Measurements of Cosmic Ray LET-Spectra for the D1 Mission Using Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors.- Cosmic Ray LET-Spectrum Measured in the Spacelab 2 Mission.- New Directions in Space Dosimetry.- Summary.- Participants.
Series: NATO Science Series A:
Number Of Pages: 864
Published: 29th November 2010
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6
Weight (kg): 1.39