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Technology and Applications of Amorphous Silicon : Technology and Applications :  Technology and Applications - Robert A. Street

Technology and Applications of Amorphous Silicon : Technology and Applications

Technology and Applications

By: Robert A. Street (Editor)

Hardcover Published: July 2009
ISBN: 9783540657149
Number Of Pages: 417

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Amorphous silicon has enabled a new technology for large-area electronics, with major applications in liquid crystal displays, image sensing and solar power conversion. This book presents a broad description of the current technology and its future potential, so that the reader can understand how the particular properties of amorphous silicon lead to unique applications. Topics covered include the design of the amorphous silicon transistor and sensor devices, the range of matrix-addressed arrays and other systems that can be fabricated, and the performance of the various application areas.

Introductionp. 1
Overview of the Bookp. 1
Development of Amorphous Siliconp. 2
Basic Properties of Amorphous Siliconp. 3
Referencesp. 5
Active-Matrix Liquid-Crystal Displaysp. 7
Introductionp. 7
TFT LCD Configurationp. 9
Pixel Designp. 14
Design Analysisp. 17
Scaling Theory of TFT LCDp. 26
Fabrication of TFT Panelsp. 34
Thin-Film Transistorsp. 36
Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistorsp. 39
TFT Characteristicsp. 41
Threshold Voltage Shiftp. 49
Simulation of TFT Behaviorp. 53
Two-Terminal Devicesp. 60
Liquid Crystalp. 61
Physical Constants of Liquid Crystalp. 64
Twisted Nematic Cellp. 69
In-Plane-Switching Cellp. 81
Super-Twisted Nematic (STN) Cellp. 87
Referencesp. 89
Laser Crystallization for Polycrystalline Silicon Device Applicationsp. 94
Introductionp. 94
Laser Processing of Polysiliconp. 96
Polysiliconp. 96
Laser Crystallizationp. 101
Grain Growthp. 105
Surface Rougheningp. 110
Laser Dopingp. 111
Low-Temperature Poly-Si Devicesp. 11
Device Fabricationp. 118
CMOS Device Performancep. 121
Device Leakage Currentsp. 126
Device Stabilityp. 130
Integration of a-Si and Poly-Si TFTsp. 132
Development of Hybrid a-Si and Poly-Si Devicesp. 133
Hybrid Materials Processingp. 135
Device Fabrication and Performancep. 138
Conclusionp. 142
Referencesp. 143
Large Area Image Sensor Arraysp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Devicesp. 148
P-i-n Photodiodesp. 148
Thin Film Transistorsp. 157
Sensor Array Designsp. 160
Matrix Addressed Readoutp. 161
TFT Addressed, p-i-n Photodiode Arraysp. 161
High Fill Factor Array Designsp. 171
TFT Addressed, X-Ray Photoconductor Arraysp. 172
Diode Addressed Arraysp. 175
CMOS Sensorsp. 178
Imaging Systems and Their Performancep. 178
Electronicsp. 179
Electronic Noisep. 185
X-Ray Detectionp. 191
The Performance of X-Ray Detectorsp. 194
Applications of Large Area Image Sensorsp. 204
Medical X-Ray Imagingp. 204
Other Radiation Imaging Applicationsp. 211
Document Scanningp. 214
Future Developmentsp. 216
Referencesp. 217
Novel Processing Technology for Macroelectronicsp. 222
Introductionp. 222
Resolution and Registration: The Density of Functions Achievable by Printingp. 225
Printed Toner Masks for Etching and Liftoffp. 228
Toner Masks via Paper Transfer: TFTs on Glass Foilp. 228
All Masks Printed Directly: TFTs on Steel Foilp. 230
Printing Active Materials: Jetting Doped Polymers for Organic Light Emitting Devicesp. 232
Substrates and Encapsulation for Macroelectronic Circuitsp. 236
Plastic Substrate Foil: TFT on Polyimidep. 244
3-D Integration on a Foil Substrate: OLED/TFT Pixel Elements on Steelp. 246
Outlookp. 249
Referencesp. 250
Multijunction Solar Cells and Modulesp. 252
Introductionp. 252
Deposition Methodsp. 254
Glow-Discharge Deposition Techniquep. 254
Plasma Chemistry and the Growth Processp. 254
Factors that Influence Film and Cell Qualityp. 256
Single-Junction Cellsp. 258
Cell Structurep. 258
Cell Characteristicsp. 259
Numerical Modelingp. 261
Light-Induced Degradationp. 264
High Efficiency Cellsp. 268
Introductionp. 268
Multijunction Cellp. 269
Key Requirements for Obtaining High Efficiencyp. 270
Back Reflectorp. 270
Doped Layerp. 275
Intrinsic Layersp. 277
Optimization of the Component Cells and Current Matchingp. 281
Tunnel Junctionp. 282
Top Conducting Oxidep. 285
Cell and Module Performancep. 285
Manufacturing Technologyp. 287
Manufacturing Processp. 287
Production Status and Product Advantagep. 293
Alternative Technologies and Future Trendsp. 295
Referencesp. 299
Multilayer Color Detectorsp. 306
Introductionp. 306
Applications of a-Si:H Color Sensorsp. 307
Optical Properties of Amorphous Siliconp. 308
Optical Properties of Amorphous Silicon Alloysp. 310
Optical Design of Layered a-Si:H Structuresp. 312
Two-Color Sensorsp. 315
Steady State and Transient Operationp. 317
SPICE Model of the Two Color Detectorp. 319
Three Color Sensorsp. 320
Three Color Discrimination with Two Electrical Terminalsp. 320
Adjustable Threshold Three Color Detector (ATCD)p. 323
Three Color Detectors in the Time Integration Regimep. 327
Mechanism of Autopolarization of the Stacked Cellsp. 328
a-Si:H Based UV Sensorsp. 332
Structure and Operation of the UV Detectorp. 333
a-Si:H Based IR Sensorsp. 334
IR Detection by Differential Photo-Capacitancep. 336
Referencesp. 338
Thin Film Position Sensitive Detectors: From 1D to 3D Applicationsp. 342
Introduction and Historical Backgroundp. 342
Why Use Amorphous Silicon to Produce Position Sensitive Detectors?p. 343
Principles of Operation of 1D and 2D PSDp. 346
The Different Types of PSD Devices That Can Be Producedp. 348
Different Types of a-Si:H TFPSD and the Production Processes Usedp. 349
Physical Model for the Lateral Photo-effect in a-Si:H p-i-n 1D and 2D TFPSDp. 358
Introductionp. 358
General Description of the 1D Theoretical Modelp. 359
Role of the Recombination Losses for the Fall-Off Parameterp. 362
Static Behaviour of Ey and ¿yp. 364
Role of ¿s and ¿sd for the Device Detection Limits, Linearity, and Spatial Resolutionp. 365
Static Distribution of the Lateral Currentp. 365
Extension of the Theoretical 1D Model to the 2D Casep. 367
Determination of the Transient Response Time of the TFPSDp. 368
Static and Dynamic Detection Limitsp. 371
Static Detection Limits of 1D TFPSDp. 371
Linearity and Spatial Resolution of 1D TFPSDp. 372
Position Response to Multiple Light Beamsp. 374
Static Predicted and Experimental Performance of the 2D TFPSD Devicep. 376
Dynamic Performance of the 1D and 2D TFPSDp. 376
Response Time of the TFPSDp. 379
Detection of Light Signals with Different Wavelengthsp. 381
Characteristics of the a-Si:H p-i-n Structures Used to Produce the TFPSDp. 383
J-V Curvesp. 383
Dependence of the Saturation Current of the Device on Tp. 385
Spectral Response and Detectivityp. 386
Peripherals for 1D and 2D TFPSD Signal Processingp. 387
Optical Methodsp. 387
Peripherals for Signal Processingp. 389
Simulated and Experimental Data in 2D Optical Inspection Systems with TFPSD Detectorp. 392
Linear Array of Thin Film Position Sensitive Detector (LTFPSD)p. 393
Principles of the Optical Methods Usedp. 394
Positional Resolution of the Arrayp. 395
Hardware to Control Arrays of Multiple 1D Sensorsp. 396
Bandwidth Requirements for the Preamplifiers Used in the Hardware Control Unit of the LTFPSDp. 398
Summary and Future Outlookp. 399
Referencesp. 400
Symbols and Abbreviationsp. 404
Subject Indexp. 411
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540657149
ISBN-10: 3540657142
Series: Springer Series in Materials Sciences; V. 37
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 417
Published: July 2009
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.79