+612 9045 4394
 
CHECKOUT
Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments : A How-To Approach - William R. Leo

Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

A How-To Approach

Paperback

Published: 25th February 1994
Ships: 15 business days
15 business days
$158.40
or 4 easy payments of $39.60 with Learn more

Not quite six years have passed since the appearance of the first edition of this book. This is not a long period. Yet the rapid pace of scientific and technological development today is such that any book on experimental technique must be wary of becoming ob- solete in some way or another even in such a short span of time. Thus, when the publisher Springer-Verlag informed me of the need for a new printing of this book, I decided it was an opportune moment to update some of the chapters as well as to include some new material. The result is this second edition. The most notable changes have been in Chapters 2 and 3. In the latter, which con- cerns radiation protection, most of the sections have been rewritten to take into account the new recommendations from the International Commission on Radiation Protection, the most important of which are the new dose limits for exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, emphasis has now been put on the use of SI units in dosimetry, i.e., the Gray and Sievert, which have now become standard.

1. Basic Nuclear Processes in Radioactive Sources.- 1.1 Nuclear Level Diagrams.- 1.2 Alpha Decay.- 1.3 Beta Decay.- 1.4 Electron Capture (EC).- 1.5 Gamma Emission.- 1.5.1 Isomeric States.- 1.6 Annihilation Radiation.- 1.7 Internal Conversion.- 1.8 Auger Electrons.- 1.9 Neutron Sources.- 1.9.1 Spontaneous Fission.- 1.9.2 Nuclear Reactions.- 1.10 Source Activity Units.- 1.11 The Radioactive Decay Law.- 1.11.1 Fluctuations in Radioactive Decay.- 1.11.2 Radioactive Decay Chains.- 1.11.3 Radioisotope Production by Irradiation.- 2. Passage of Radiation Through Matter.- 2.1 Preliminary Notions and Definitions.- 2.1.1 The Cross Section.- 2.1.2 Interaction Probability in a Distance x. Mean Free Path.- 2.1.3 Surface Density Units.- 2.2 Energy Loss of Heavy Charged Particles by Atomic Collisions.- 2.2.1 Bohr's Calculation - The Classical Case.- 2.2.2 The Bethe-Bloch Formula.- 2.2.3 Energy Dependence.- 2.2.4 Scaling Laws for dE/dx.- 2.2.5 Mass Stopping Power.- 2.2.6 dE/dx for Mixtures and Compounds.- 2.2.7 Limitations of the Bethe-Bloch Formula and Other Effects.- 2.2.8 Channeling.- 2.2.9 Range.- 2.3 Cherenkov Radiation.- 2.4 Energy Loss of Electrons and Positrons.- 2.4.1 Collision Loss.- 2.4.2 Energy Loss by Radiation: Bremsstrahlung.- 2.4.3 Electron-Electron Bremsstrahlung.- 2.4.4 Critical Energy.- 2.4.5 Radiation Length.- 2.4.6 Range of Electrons.- 2.4.7 The Absorption of ? Electrons.- 2.5 Multiple Coulomb Scattering.- 2.5.1 Multiple Scattering in the Gaussian Approximation.- 2.5.2 Backscattering of Low-Energy Electrons.- 2.6 Energy Straggling: The Energy Loss Distribution.- 2.6.1 Thick Absorbers: The Gaussian Limit.- 2.6.2 Very Thick Absorbers.- 2.6.3 Thin Absorbers: The Landau and Vavilov Theories.- 2.7 The Interaction of Photons.- 2.7.1 Photoelectric Effect.- 2.7.2 Compton Scattering.- 2.7.3 Pair Production.- 2.7.4 Electron-Photon Showers.- 2.7.5 The Total Absorption Coefficient and Photon Attenuation.- 2.8 The Interaction of Neutrons.- 2.8.1 Slowing Down of Neutrons. Moderation.- 3. Radiation Protection. Biological Effects of Radiation.- 3.1 Dosimetric Units.- 3.1.1 The Roentgen.- 3.1.2 Absorbed Dose.- 3.1.3 Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE).- 3.1.4 Equivalent Dose.- 3.1.5 Effective Dose.- 3.2 Typical Doses from Sources in the Environment.- 3.3 Biological Effects.- 3.3.1 High Doses Received in a Short Time.- 3.3.2 Low-Level Doses.- 3.4 Dose Limits.- 3.5 Shielding.- 3.6 Radiation Safety in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory.- 4. Statistics and the Treatment of Experimental Data.- 4.1 Characteristics of Probability Distributions.- 4.1.1 Cumulative Distributions.- 4.1.2 Expectation Values.- 4.1.3 Distribution Moments. The Mean and Variance.- 4.1.4 The Covariance.- 4.2 Some Common Probability Distributions.- 4.2.1 The Binomial Distribution.- 4.2.2 The Poisson Distribution.- 4.2.3 The Gaussian or Normal Distribution.- 4.2.4 The Chi-Square Distribution.- 4.3 Measurement Errors and the Measurement Process.- 4.3.1 Systematic Errors.- 4.3.2 Random Errors.- 4.4 Sampling and Parameter Estimation. The Maximum Likelihood Method.- 4.4.1 Sample Moments.- 4.4.2 The Maximum Likelihood Method.- 4.4.3 Estimator for the Poisson Distribution.- 4.4.4 Estimators for the Gaussian Distribution.- 4.4.5 The Weighted Mean.- 4.5 Examples of Applications.- 4.5.1 Mean and Error from a Series of Measurements.- 4.5.2 Combining Data with Different Errors.- 4.5.3 Determination of Count Rates and Their Errors.- 4.5.4 Null Experiments. Setting Confidence Limits When No Counts Are Observed.- 4.5.5 Distribution of Time Intervals Between Counts.- 4.6 Propagation of Errors.- 4.6.1 Examples.- 4.7 Curve Fitting.- 4.7.1 The Least Squares Method.- 4.7.2 Linear Fits. The Straight Line.- 4.7.3 Linear Fits When Both Variables Have Errors.- 4.7.4 Nonlinear Fits.- 4.8 Some General Rules for Rounding-off Numbers for Final Presentation.- 5. General Characteristics of Detectors.- 5.1 Sensitivity.- 5.2 Detector Response.- 5.3 Energy Resolution. The Fano Factor.- 5.4 The Response Function.- 5.5 Response Time.- 5.6 Detector Efficiency.- 5.7 Dead Time.- 5.7.1 Measuring Dead Time.- 6. Ionization Detectors.- 6.1 Gaseous Ionization Detectors.- 6.2 Ionization and Transport Phenomena in Gases.- 6.2.1 Ionization Mechanisms.- 6.2.2 Mean Number of Electron-Ion Pairs Created.- 6.2.3 Recombination and Electron Attachment.- 6.3 Transport of Electrons and Ions in Gases.- 6.3.1 Diffusion.- 6.3.2 Drift and Mobility.- 6.4 Avalanche Multiplication.- 6.5 The Cylindrical Proportional Counter.- 6.5.1 Pulse Formation and Shape.- 6.5.2 Choice of Fill Gas.- 6.6 The Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC).- 6.6.1 Basic Operating Principle.- 6.6.2 Construction.- 6.6.3 Chamber Gas.- 6.6.4 Timing Resolution.- 6.6.5 Readout Methods.- 6.6.6 Track Clusters.- 6.6.7 MWPC Efficiency.- 6.7 The Drift Chamber.- 6.7.1 Drift Gases.- 6.7.2 Spatial Resolution.- 6.7.3 Operation in Magnetic Fields.- 6.8 The Time Projection Chamber (TPC).- 6.9 Liquid Ionization Detectors (LID).- 7. Scintillation Detectors.- 7.1 General Characteristics.- 7.2 Organic Scintillators.- 7.2.1 Organic Crystals.- 7.2.2 Organic Liquids.- 7.2.3 Plastics.- 7.3 Inorganic Crystals.- 7.4 Gaseous Scintillators.- 7.5 Glasses.- 7.6 Light Output Response.- 7.6.1 Linearity.- 7.6.2 Temperature Dependence.- 7.6.3 Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD).- 7.7 Intrinsic Detection Efficiency for Various Radiations.- 7.7.1 Heavy Ions.- 7.7.2 Electrons.- 7.7.3 Gamma Rays.- 7.7.4 Neutrons.- 8. Photomultipliers.- 8.1 Basic Construction and Operation.- 8.2 The Photocathode.- 8.3 The Electron-Optical Input System.- 8.4 The Electron-Multiplier Section.- 8.4.1 Dynode Configurations.- 8.4.2 Multiplier Response: The Single-Electron Spectrum.- 8.5 Operating Parameters.- 8.5.1 Gain and Voltage Supply.- 8.5.2 Voltage Dividers.- 8.5.3 Electrode Current. Linearity.- 8.5.4 Pulse Shape.- 8.6 Time Response and Resolution.- 8.7 Noise.- 8.7.1 Dark Current and Afterpulsing.- 8.7.2 Statistical Noise.- 8.8 Environmental Factors.- 8.8.1 Exposure to Ambient Light.- 8.8.2 Magnetic Fields.- 8.8.3 Temperature Effects.- 8.9 Gain Stability, Count Rate Shift.- 9. Scintillation Detector Mounting and Operation.- 9.1 Light Collection.- 9.1.1 Reflection.- 9.2 Coupling to the PM.- 9.3 Multiple Photomultipliers.- 9.4 Light Guides.- 9.5 Fluorescent Radiation Converters.- 9.6 Mounting a Scintillation Detector: An Example.- 9.7 Scintillation Counter Operation.- 9.7.1 Testing the Counter.- 9.7.2 Adjusting the PM Voltage.- 9.7.3 The Scintillation Counter Plateau.- 9.7.4 Maintaining PM Gain.- 10. Semiconductor Detectors.- 10.1 Basic Semiconductor Properties.- 10.1.1 Energy Band Structure.- 10.1.2 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors.- 10.1.3 Intrinsic Charge Carrier Concentration.- 10.1.4 Mobility.- 10.1.5 Recombination and Trapping.- 10.2 Doped Semiconductors.- 10.2.1 Compensation.- 10.3 The np Semiconductor Junction. Depletion Depth.- 10.3.1 The Depletion Depth.- 10.3.2 Junction Capacitance.- 10.3.3 Reversed Bias Junctions.- 10.4 Detector Characteristics of Semiconductors.- 10.4.1 Average Energy per Electron-Hole Pair.- 10.4.2 Linearity.- 10.4.3 The Fano Factor and Intrinsic Energy Resolution.- 10.4.4 Leakage Current.- 10.4.5 Sensitivity and Intrinsic Efficiency.- 10.4.6 Pulse Shape. Rise Time.- 10.5 Silicon Diode Detectors.- 10.5.1 Diffused Junction Diodes.- 10.5.2 Surface Barrier Detectors (SSB).- 10.5.3 Ion-Implanted Diodes.- 10.5.4 Lithium-Drifted Silicon Diodes - Si(Li).- 10.6 Position-Sensitive Detectors.- 10.6.1 Continuous and Discrete Detectors.- 10.6.2 Micro-Strip Detectors.- 10.6.3 Novel Position-Sensing Detectors.- 10.7 Germanium Detectors.- 10.7.1 Lithium-Drifted Germanium - Ge(Li).- 10.7.2 Intrinsic Germanium.- 10.7.3 Gamma Spectroscopy with Germanium Detectors.- 10.8 Other Semiconductor Materials.- 10.9 Operation of Semiconductor Detectors.- 10.9.1 Bias Voltage.- 10.9.2 Signal Amplification.- 10.9.3 Temperature Effects.- 10.9.4 Radiation Damage.- 10.9.5 Plasma Effects.- 11. Pulse Signals in Nuclear Electronics.- 11.1 Pulse Signal Terminology.- 11.2 Analog and Digital Signals.- 11.3 Fast and Slow Signals.- 11.4 The Frequency Domain. Bandwidth.- 12. The NIM Standard.- 12.1 Modules.- 12.2 Power Bins.- 12.3 NIM Logic Signals.- 12.4 TTL and ECL Logic Signals.- 12.5 Analog Signals.- 13. Signal Transmission.- 13.1 Coaxial Cables.- 13.1.1 Line Constituents.- 13.2 The General Wave Equation for a Coaxial Line.- 13.3 The Ideal Lossless Cable.- 13.3.1 Characteristic Impedance.- 13.4 Reflections.- 13.5 Cable Termination. Impedance Matching.- 13.6 Losses in Coaxial Cables. Pulse Distortion.- 13.6.1 Cable Response. Pulse Distortion.- 14. Electronics for Pulse Signal Processing.- 14.1 Preamplifiers.- 14.1.1 Resistive vs Optical Feedback.- 14.2 Main Amplifiers.- 14.3 Pulse Shaping Networks in Amplifiers.- 14.3.1 CR-RC Pulse Shaping.- 14.3.2 Pole-Zero Cancellation and Baseline Restoration.- 14.3.3 Double Differentiation or CR-RC-CR Shaping.- 14.3.4 Semi-Gaussian Shaping.- 14.3.5 Delay Line Shaping.- 14.4 Biased Amplifiers.- 14.5 Pulse Stretchers.- 14.6 Linear Transmission Gate.- 14.7 Fan-out and Fan-in.- 14.8 Delay Lines.- 14.9 Discriminators.- 14.9.1 Shapers.- 14.10 Single-Channel Analyzer (Differential Discriminator).- 14.11 Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC or A/D).- 14.11.1 ADC Linearity.- 14.12 Multichannel Analyzers.- 14.13 Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC or D/A).- 14.14 Time to Amplitude Converters (TAC or TPHC).- 14.15 Scalers.- 14.16 Ratemeter.- 14.17 Coincidence Units.- 14.18 Majority Logic Units.- 14.19 Flip-Flops.- 14.20 Registers (Latches).- 14.21 Gate and Delay Generators.- 14.22 Some Simple and Handy Circuits for Pulse Manipulation.- 14.22.1 Attenuators.- 14.22.2 Pulse Splitting.- 14.22.3 Pulse Inversion.- 14.23 Filtering and Shaping.- 14.23.1 Pulse Clipping.- 14.23.2 High-Pass Filter or CR Differentiating Circuit.- 14.23.3 RC Low-Pass Filter or Integrating Circuit.- 15. Pulse Height Selection and Coincidence Technique.- 15.1 A Simple Counting System.- 15.2 Pulse Height Selection.- 15.2.1 SCA Calibration and Energy Spectrum Measurement.- 15.2.2 A Note on Calibration Sources.- 15.3 Pulse Height Spectroscopy with Multichannel Analyzers.- 15.4 Basic Coincidence Technique.- 15.4.1 Adjusting the Delays. The Coincidence Curve.- 15.4.2 Adjusting Delays with the Oscilloscope.- 15.4.3 Accidental Coincidences.- 15.5 Combining Pulse Height Selection and Coincidence Determination. The Fast-Slow Circuit.- 15.6 Pulse Shape Discrimination.- 16. Electronic Logic for Experiments.- 16.1 Basic Logic Gates: Symbols.- 16.2 Boolean Laws and Identities.- 16.3 The Inhibit or Busy.- 16.4 Triggers.- 16.4.1 One-Body Scattering.- 16.4.2 Two-Body Scattering.- 16.4.3 Measurement of the Muon Lifetime.- 17. Timing Methods and Systems.- 17.1 Walk and Jitter.- 17.2 Time-Pickoff Methods.- 17.2.1 Leading Edge Triggering (LE).- 17.2.2 Fast Zero-Crossing Triggering.- 17.2.3 Constant Fraction Triggering (CFT).- 17.2.4 Amplitude and Risetime Compensated Triggering (ARC).- 17.3 Analog Timing Methods.- 17.3.1 The START-STOP Time-to-Amplitude Converter.- 17.3.2 Time Overlap TAC's.- 17.4 Digital Timing Methods.- 17.4.1 The Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC).- 17.4.2 The Vernier TDC.- 17.4.3 Calibrating the Timing System.- 18. Computer Controlled Electronics: CAMAC.- 18.1 CAMAC Systems.- 18.2 The CAMAC Standard.- 18.2.1 Mechanical Standards.- 18.2.2 Electrical Standards: Digital Signals.- 18.3 The CAMAC Dataway.- 18.3.1 Common Control Signals (Z,C,I).- 18.3.2 Status Signals.- 18.3.3 Timing Signals.- 18.3.4 Data Signals.- 18.3.5 Address Signals.- 18.3.6 Command Signals.- 18.3.7 Pin Allocations.- 18.4 Dataway Operations.- 18.4.1 Dataway Timing.- 18.4.2 Block Transfers.- 18.5 Multi-Crate Systems - The Branch Highway.- 18.6 CAMAC Software.- A. A Review of Oscilloscope Functions.- A. 1 Basic Structure.- A.1.1 Bandwidth and Risetime.- A.2 Controls and Operating Modes.- A.2.1 Input Coupling.- A.2.2 Vertical and Horizontal Sensitivity.- A.2.3 Triggering (Synchronization).- A.2.4 Display Modes.- A.3 Applications and Examples.- A.3.1 Signal Viewing.- A.3.2 Comparison of Signals.- B. Physical and Numerical Constants.- C. Resistor Color Code.- References.

ISBN: 9783540572800
ISBN-10: 3540572805
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 378
Published: 25th February 1994
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 27.89 x 21.29  x 2.13
Weight (kg): 0.88
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised