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Supercritical Fluids : Molecular Interactions, Physical Properties and New Applications - Y. Arai

Supercritical Fluids

Molecular Interactions, Physical Properties and New Applications

By: Y. Arai (Editor), Takeshi Sako (Editor), Yoshihiro Takebayashi (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 20th November 2001
ISBN: 9783540412489
Number Of Pages: 448

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New processing methods govern the progress in physical-chemical technology. The potential of supercritical fluid methods is presented in a comprehensive way in this book. On the basis of a careful discussion of physical and chemical principles, the application of this method in process technology is demonstrated.

Solution Structure in Supercritical Fluidsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What is a Supercritical Fluid?p. 1
Studies of Supercritical Fluids at the Molecular Levelp. 2
Solvation Structure from Spectroscopyp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Electronic Transitionsp. 4
Vibrational Spectrap. 10
Solvation Structure from Molecular Simulationsp. 18
Molecular Interactions in Supercritical Fluidsp. 18
Introduction to Molecular Simulationp. 23
Solvation Structure in Supercritical Fluidsp. 30
Static Properties of Supercritical Fluidsp. 36
Excess Thermodynamic Quantitiesp. 37
Solubilityp. 42
Adsorptionp. 47
Dynamic Properties of Supercritical Fluidsp. 51
Dynamics of Clusters in Supercritical Fluidsp. 51
Diffusion and Viscosityp. 59
Referencesp. 64
Phase Equilibria and Static Propertiesp. 71
Thermophysical Properties of Supercritical Fluidsp. 71
Behavior of Supercritical Fluidsp. 71
Measurement of the Critical Point of Liquid and Vaporp. 77
Phase Equilibria for a Mixture with a Supercritical Fluidp. 78
PhaseRulep. 78
Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagramsp. 79
Experimental Phase Diagrams for a Binary Mixturep. 84
Measurement of Phase Equilibriap. 85
Static Methodp. 85
Dynamic Methodp. 90
Prediction of Phase Equilibriap. 98
Fundamental Equationsp. 98
Empirical Equation of Statep. 99
MixingRulesp. 101
Correlation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibriap. 101
Correlation of Solubility of the Solid Component in a Supercritical Fluidp. 102
Correlation of Entrainer Effectp. 105
Group Contribution Methodp. 108
Prediction of Excess Gibbs Free Energy Using the Group Contribution Method (ASOG and UNIFAC)p. 110
EOS-Group Contribution Methodp. Ill
Group Contribution Equation of State (GC-EOS)p. 119
Referencesp. 122
Transport Properties of Supercritical Fluidsp. 127
Viscosityp. 127
Definition and General Behavior of Viscosityp. 128
Measurement of Viscosityp. 131
Correlationp. 138
Critical Anomaly of Viscosityp. 142
Remarksp. 146
Thermal Conductivityp. 147
Definition and Units of Thermal Conductivityp. 147
Measurement of Thermal Conductivityp. 148
General Behavior of Thermal Conductivityp. 154
Correlationp. 157
Critical Anomaly of Thermal Conductivityp. 166
Binary Diffusion Coefficientp. 172
Definition of Binary Diffusion Coefficientsp. 173
Measurement of Binary Diffusion Coefficientp. 174
Correlationsp. 181
Pseudo-Binary Diffusion Coefficients in Mixture Solventsp. 191
Critical Anomaly of Diffusion Coefficientp. 193
Remarksp. 198
Referencesp. 199
Extraction and Separation Using Supercritical Fluids p. 207
Principles for Supercritical Fluid Separationp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Solubility of a Nonvolatile Compound in a Supercritical Fluidp. 207
Solubility of a Solid Solute Mixture in a Supercritical Fluidp. 210
Fluid-Liquid Equilibria for a Ternary Mixturep. 214
Adsorption in the Presence of a Supercritical Fluidp. 216
Supercritical Fluid Extractionp. 218
Supercritical Fluid Fractionation of Polymersp. 221
Multistaged Countercurrent Extractionp. 222
Chromatographical Separation Using Supercritical Fluidp. 223
Reduction of Organic Solvent Usage in Extractionp. 224
Process Development Studies for Separation of Chemicalsp. 224
Introductionp. 224
Separation of Organic + Water Liquid Mixturesp. 224
Crystallization Separation of Aromatic Hydrocarbonsp. 226
Supercritical Fluid Adsorption Processp. 231
Polymer Processingp. 234
Treatment of Various Waste Streamsp. 237
Extraction and Separation of Natural Productsp. 239
Phase Equilibria for Components in Natural Materialsp. 239
Solid Material Processingp. 242
Liquid Material Processingp. 246
Pressure Swing Adsorptionp. 256
Separation and Analysis by Supercritical Fluid Chromatographyp. 260
Introductionp. 260
Characteristics of Supercritical Fluid Chromatographyp. 260
Instrumentationp. 266
Control of Retention and Selectivityp. 273
Measurement of Solubility and Phase Behavior Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Techniquesp. 274
Referencesp. 276
Material Processing Using Supercritical Fluidsp. 281
Fractionation, Debindering and Dryingp. 281
Fractionation of Polymersp. 281
Phase Separation of Polymer Solutionsp. 283
Devolatilization of Polymersp. 285
Debindering of Molded Fine Ceramicsp. 289
Drying of Alcogelsp. 293
Crystallization Using a Supercritical Fluidp. 299
Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS)p. 299
Gas Anti-Solvent (GAS)p. 310
Processing of Polymeric Materials Using Supercritical Fluidsp. 319
Solubility and Diffusivity of Gases in Polymersp. 320
Crystallization of Plastics Induced by Supercritical Fluidp. 324
Batchwise Production of Microcellular Thermoplasticsp. 326
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Oxidep. 331
Principle of Hydrothermal Synthesis in Supercritical Waterp. 331
Key Features of Hydrothermal Synthesis in Supercritical Waterp. 332
Applications of Hydrothermal Synthesis in Supercritical Waterp. 337
Referencesp. 340
Reactions in Supercritical Fluidsp. 347
Reactions and Reaction Theory in Supercritical Fluidsp. 347
Introductionp. 347
Characteristics of Reactions in Supercritical Fluidsp. 347
Reaction Mechanism and Reaction Rate in Supercritical Fluidsp. 350
Characteristics of Supercritical Fluids as Reaction Solventsp. 357
Introductionp. 357
Supercritical Carbon Dioxidep. 360
Supercritical Waterp. 360
Supercritical Methanolp. 362
Oxidation and Hydrolysis Reactions in Supercritical Waterp. 364
Oxidation and Related Reactionsp. 364
Hydrolysis Reactionsp. 374
Organic and Catalytic Reactions in Rupercritical Carbon Dioxide?p381
Introductionp. 381
Recent Advances in Organic Reactions in Supercritical Fluidsp. 383
Homogeneous Catalytic Reactions in Supercritical Fluidsp. 388
Concluding Remarksp. 402
Reactions of Enzymes and Molecular Aggregates in Supercritical Fluidsp. 403
Introductionp. 403
Enzymatic Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxidep. 405
Reactions in Microemulsions Formed in Supercritical Fluidsp. 411
Concluding Remarksp. 414
Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical Fluidsp. 415
Introductionp. 415
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Supercritical Fluidsp. 416
Synthesis of Fine Chemicals in Supercritical Fluidsp. 420
Kinetics of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical Fluidsp. 421
Concluding Remarksp. 425
Referencesp. 426
Appendicesp. 437
Subject Indexp. 441
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540412489
ISBN-10: 3540412484
Series: Springer Series in Materials Processing
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 448
Published: 20th November 2001
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 16.51  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.82