Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials.
The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.
Preface. Organizing Committee and the List of Contributors. 1. Supercritical Fluids: Their properties and applications; J.M.H. Levelt Sengers. 2. Physico-chemical principles of supercritical fluid science; G.M. Schneider, et al. 3. Phase equilibria in near-critical solutions: Binary and ternary mixtures of carbon dioxide and certain solutes and the occurrence of two-phase holes; K. Gauter, C.J. Peters. 4. Critical anc crossover phenomena in fluids and fluid mixtures; M.A. Anisimov, J.V. Sengers. 5. Phase separation by nucleation and by spinodal decomposition: Fundamentals; P.G. Debenedetti. 6. Polymer miscibility and kinetics of pressure-induced phase separation in Near-critical and supercritical fluids; E. Kiran. 7. Fundamentals of interfacial properties; P.M.W. Cornelisse, C.J. Peters. 8. Theory and simulation of colloid and interface science in supercritical fluids; J.C. Meredith, K.P. Johnston. 9. Polymer phase behavior: Todays achievements and tomorrow's needs; L.A.L. Kleintjens. 10. Polymerization and polymer modification reactions in near and supercritical fluids; E. Kiran. 11. Phase transitions in polymer blends and block copolymers induced by selective dilation with supercritical CO2; J.J. Watkins, et al. 12. Applications of supercritical fluids to pharmaceuticals: Controlled drug release systems; I. Kikic, P. Sist. 13. Supercritical water and other fluids - A historical perspective; E.U. Franck. 14. Solution chemistry in supercritical water: Spectroscopy and simulation; K.P. Johnston, P.J. Rossky. 15. Molecular simulation and modeling of supercritical water and aqueous solutions; A.A. Chialvo, P.T. Cummings. 16. Solute reaction dynamics in the compressible regime; S.C. Tucker, G. Goodyear. 17. Destruction of toxic organic materials using supercritical water oxidation: Current state of the technology; R.W. Shaw, N. Dahmen. 18. Kinetic studies of methanol oxidation in supercritical water and carbon dioxide; A. Kruse, et al. 19. Sub- and supercritical fluid processing of agrimaterials: Extraction, fractionation, and reaction modes; J.W. King. 20. Lipid extraction from plant and muscle tissues using supercritical CO2; F. Temelli. 21. Modeling of natural materials extraction; Ö. Hortaçsu. 22. Design procedure and scale-up for separation processes with supercritical fluids; G. Brunner. Future Directions and Research Needs &e Summary of Panel Discussions. Appendix I. Poster Presentations. Appendix II. List of Participants. Index.
Series: NATO Science Series E: (Closed)
Number Of Pages: 596
Published: 31st May 2000
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6
Weight (kg): 0.85