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Sun : An Introduction :  An Introduction - Michael Stix

Sun : An Introduction

An Introduction

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Published: July 1991
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Recent progress in instrumentation and observational techniques has brought a wealth of new information to astronomists about the sun. This introductory text presents a complete overview of solar physics, including present knowledge of the subject and problems yet to be investigated. The increasing number of observations of solar phenomena in neighbouring stars will make this text of interest not only to students specializing in solar physics but also to researchers interested in stellar structure and the solar-stellar connection.

1. Introduction: The Sun's Distance, Mass, Radius, Luminosity ...- 1.1 Distance.- 1.2 Mass.- 1.3 Radius.- 1.4 Luminosity.- 1.5 Spectral Energy Distribution.- 1.5.1 Energy Flux and Intensity.- 1.5.2 The Visible.- 1.5.3 The Infrared.- 1.5.4 The Radio Spectrum.- 1.5.5 The Ultraviolet.- 1.5.6 Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Rays.- 1.5.7 Color Indices.- 1.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 2. Internal Structure.- 2.1 Construction of a Model.- 2.1.1 The Evolutionary Sequence.- 2.1.2 The Standard Model.- 2.2 Age and Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution.- 2.3 Model Ingredients.- 2.3.1 Conservation Laws.- 2.3.2 Energy Transport.- 2.3.3 The Equation of State.- 2.3.4 The Entropy.- 2.3.5 Nuclear Energy Sources.- 2.3.6 The Opacity.- 2.3.7 Boundary Conditions and Method of Solution.- 2.4 Results for a Standard Solar Model.- 2.4.1 General Evolution.- 2.4.2 Neutrinos.- 2.5 Non-Standard Models.- 2.5.1 The Low-Z Model.- 2.5.2 Rapidly Rotating Core.- 2.5.3 Internal Magnetic Field.- 2.5.4 The Internally Mixed Model.- 2.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 3. Tools for Solar Observation.- 3.1 Limitations.- 3.1.1 General Difficulties.- 3.1.2 Seeing: Description and Definitions.- 3.1.3 Seeing: How to Live with It.- 3.2 High-Resolution Telescopes.- 3.2.1 Image Scale.- 3.2.2 Mirrors for Fixed Telescopes.- 3.2.3 Telescopes with Long Primary Focus.- 3.2.4 Telescopes with Short Primary Focus.- 3.3 Spectrographs and Spectrometers.- 3.3.1 The Grating Spectrograph.- 3.3.2 The Fourier Transform Spectrometer.- 3.3.3 The Measurement of Line Shifts.- 3.4 Filters and Monochromators.- 3.4.1 The Lyot Filter.- 3.4.2 Tuning; the Universal Filter.- 3.4.3 A Double Monochromator.- 3.4.4 The Spectroheliograph.- 3.5 Magnetic Fields and Polarimetry.- 3.5.1 Zeeman Splitting.- 3.5.2 Polarized Light.- 3.5.3 Unno's Equations.- 3.5.4 Solar Polarimeters.- 3.6 Special-Purpose Instruments.- 3.6.1 The Pyrheliometer.- 3.6.2 Neutrino Detectors.- 3.6.3 The Coronagraph.- 3.7 Bibliographical Notes.- 4. The Atmosphere.- 4.1 Radiative Transfer - Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium.- 4.1.1 The Equation of Transfer.- 4.1.2 Various Equilibria.- 4.1.3 Absorption Lines in LTE.- 4.2 Radiative Transfer - Statistical Equilibrium.- 4.2.1 Model Assumptions.- 4.2.2 Line Radiation and Einstein Coefficients.- 4.2.3 Continuum Radiation.- 4.2.4 Collisions.- 4.2.5 The Source Function.- 4.2.6 The Equations of Statistical Equilibrium.- 4.3 Atmospheric Models.- 4.3.1 Limb Darkening.- 4.3.2 Model Calculations in LTE.- 4.3.3 Models with Departures from LTE.- 4.4 The Chemical Composition of the Sun.- 4.4.1 Spectrum Synthesis.- 4.4.2 The Light Elements Li, Be, B.- 4.4.3 Helium.- 4.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 5. Oscillations.- 5.1 Observations.- 5.1.1 Five-Minute Oscillations.- 5.1.2 The p-Mode Ridges.- 5.1.3 Low-Degree p Modes.- 5.2 Linear Adiabatic Oscillations of a Non-rotating Sun.- 5.2.1 Basic Equations.- 5.2.2 Spherical Harmonic Representation.- 5.2.3 The Cowling Approximation.- 5.2.4 Local Treatment.- 5.2.5 Boundary Conditions.- 5.2.6 Asymptotic Results.- 5.3 Helioseismology.- 5.3.1 Direct Modelling.- 5.3.2 Inverse Theory: Internal Structure.- 5.3.3 Inverse Theory: Rotation.- 5.4 Excitation and Damping.- 5.4.1 The ? Mechanism.- 5.4.2 Stochastic Excitation by Convection.- 5.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 6. Convection.- 6.1 Stability.- 6.2 Mixing-Length Theory.- 6.2.1 The Local Formalism.- 6.2.2 Numerical Test Calculations.- 6.2.3 Overshoot; A Non-local Formalism.- 6.3 Granulation.- 6.3.1 The Observed Pattern.- 6.3.2 Models.- 6.3.3 Mean Line Profiles.- 6.4 Mesogranulation.- 6.5 Supergranulation.- 6.5.1 The Velocity Field and the Network.- 6.5.2 Convective Nature.- 6.5.3 Rotational Effects.- 6.6 Giant Cells.- 6.6.1 Tracer Results.- 6.6.2 Spectroscopic Results.- 6.7 Bibliographical Notes.- 7. Rotation.- 7.1 Axis of Rotation.- 7.2 Oblateness.- 7.2.1 Origin.- 7.2.2 Measurements.- 7.3 Rotational History.- 7.3.1 The Initial State.- 7.3.2 Torques.- 7.3.3 Rotating Models of the Sun.- 7.4 Surface Observations.- 7.4.1 The Angular Velocity.- 7.4.2 Meridional Circulation.- 7.4.3 Correlation of Flow Components.- 7.5 Models of a Rotating Convection Zone.- 7.5.1 Conservation of Angular Momentum.- 7.5.2 Mean-Field Models.- 7.5.3 Explicit Models.- 7.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 8. Magnetism.- 8.1 Fields and Conducting Matter.- 8.1.1 The Induction Equation.- 8.1.2 Electrical Conductivity on the Sun.- 8.1.3 Frozen Fields.- 8.1.4 The Magnetic Force.- 8.2 Flux Tubes.- 8.2.1 Concentration of Magnetic Flux.- 8.2.2 Observational Evidence for Flux Tubes.- 8.2.3 Vertical Thin Flux Tubes.- 8.2.4 Curved Thin Flux Tubes.- 8.2.5 Thermal Structure of Photospheric Tubes.- 8.3 Sunspots.- 8.3.1 Evolution and Classification.- 8.3.2 Sunspot Models.- 8.3.3 Spots and the "Solar Constant".- 8.3.4 Dots and Grains.- 8.3.5 Oscillations in Sunspots.- 8.3.6 The Evershed Effect.- 8.4 The Solar Cycle.- 8.4.1 Global Magnetism.- 8.4.2 Mean-Field Electrodynamics.- 8.4.3 The Kinematic ?? Dynamo.- 8.4.4 The Solar Cycle as a Dynamic System.- 8.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 9. Chromosphere, Corona, and Solar Wind.- 9.1 Empirical Facts.- 9.1.1 The Chromosphere.- 9.1.2 The Transition Region.- 9.1.3 The Corona.- 9.1.4 The Wind.- 9.2 Consequences of High Temperature.- 9.2.1 Heat Conduction.- 9.2.2 Expansion.- 9.3 The Magnetic Field in the Outer Atmosphere.- 9.3.1 Magnetic Field Measurements.- 9.3.2 Potential Field Extrapolation.- 9.3.3 The Force-Free Field.- 9.3.4 Prominences.- 9.3.5 Magnetic Braking of Solar Rotation.- 9.4 The Energy Balance.- 9.4.1 Needs.- 9.4.2 Heating.- 9.5 Explosive Events.- 9.5.1 Flares and Other Eruptions.- 9.5.2 Release of Magnetic Energy.- 9.6 Bibliographical Notes.- List of Symbols.- References.

ISBN: 9783540537960
ISBN-10: 3540537961
Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 390
Published: July 1991
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.13
Weight (kg): 0.57