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Stress and Addiction : Biological and Psychological Mechanisms - Mustafa al'Absi

Stress and Addiction

Biological and Psychological Mechanisms

Hardcover

Published: 1st January 2007
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Stress is one of the most commonly reported precipitants of drug use and is considered the number one cause of relapse to drug abuse. For the past several decades, there have been a number of significant advances in research focusing on the neurobiological and psychosocial aspects of stress and addiction; along with this growth came the recognition of the importance of understanding the interaction of biological and psychosocial factors that influence risk for initiation and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Recent research has started to specifically focus on understanding the nature of how stress contributes to addiction - this research has influenced the way we think about addiction and its etiological factors and has produced exciting possibilities for developing effective intervention strategies; to date there has been no available book to integrate this literature. This highly focused work integrates and consolidates available knowledge to provide a resource for researchers and practitioners and for trainees in multiple fields. It will help neuroscientists, social scientists, and mental health providers in addressing the role of stress in addictive behaviors; the volume is also useful as a reference book for those conducting research in this field.
* Integrates theoretical and practical issues related to stress and addiction
* Includes case studies illustrating where an emotional state and addictive behavior represent a prominent feature of the clinical presentation
* Cross-disciplinary coverage with contributions by by scientists and practitioners from multiple fields, including psychology, neuroscience, neurobiology, and medicine

"In summary, Stress and Addiction: Biological and Psychological Mechanisms is a useful book that provides an overview of the research on stress and addiction in a concise format that motivated readers can use as a starting point to track down more in-depth information in diverse areas. It works best as a reference resource. The writers of the individual chapters are knowledgeable and present research findings clearly. ... The book provides a balanced view in terms of presenting conflicting research findings, and it discusses limitations of instruments and study designs. This book achieves its goal of bringing together biological and psychological findings on the overlap of stress and addiction." --Michael Weaver, Virginia Commonwealth University, in SRNT (Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco) Newsletter May / June 2007, Volume 13, Number 2

Contributorsp. xi
Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Neurobiology of Stress and Addiction
Biological Bases of the Stress Responsep. 3
Introductionp. 3
Physiological Stress Researchp. 4
Major Components of the Biological Stress Response Systemp. 7
Other Stress-Responsive Hormone Axesp. 10
Other Stress-Responsive Systemsp. 12
Final Remarksp. 15
Referencesp. 15
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Addictionp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Stress and the HPA Axisp. 22
Stress, the HPA Axis, and the Acquisition of Drug Takingp. 23
Stress and Vulnerability to Addiction in Humansp. 25
The HPA Axis and the Maintenance of Drug Takingp. 26
Relapse to Addictionp. 28
Inconsistenciesp. 30
Conclusions and Implications for the Treatment of Addictionp. 33
Referencesp. 35
Dopaminergic Reward Pathways and Effects of Stressp. 41
Defining Stressp. 41
The Mesencephalic Dopamine Systemp. 42
Dopamine and Addictionp. 48
Dopamine and Stressp. 52
Conclusionsp. 63
Referencesp. 67
Endogenous Opiates, Addiction, and the Stress Responsep. 85
Introductionp. 85
The Endogenous Opioid Systemp. 86
The Endogenous Opioid System and Reward and Reinforcementp. 86
Effect of Alcohol on Endogenous Opioid Activityp. 87
Effect of Alcohol on Endogenous Opioid Receptorsp. 88
Endogenous Opioid Activity and Receptors and Alcohol Preferencep. 88
Opioid Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcohol Addictionp. 90
Endogenous Opioid Activity and Receptors and Cocaine Preferencep. 91
Opioid Antagonists in the Treatment of Cocaine Addictionp. 91
Opioids and Risk for Alcoholismp. 92
The [Mu]-Opioid Receptor Genep. 95
Conclusionsp. 97
Referencesp. 97
Early Life Stress and Vulnerability to Addictionp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Neurohormonal Mechanisms of Stress Relevant to Cocaine Addictionp. 106
Animal Modelsp. 108
Neurohormonal Effects of Neonatal Isolationp. 110
Behavioral Effects of Neonatal Isolationp. 112
Sex Differences and Estrous Stage Effects of Neonatal Isolationp. 118
Maternal Care Hypothesisp. 118
Conclusions and Translation for Clinical Relevancep. 119
Referencesp. 120
Genetics, Stress, and the Risk for Addictionp. 127
Introductionp. 127
The Extent of the Problem: Prevalence of Addictionp. 128
Heritability of Addictionp. 128
HPA Axisp. 130
The "Reward" Pathway of Addiction: Interaction with Stressp. 132
Reward Pathway and Stress Response: Key Neurotransporter Systemsp. 133
Limbic Regulation of Response to Stressp. 137
The Locus Coeruleus (LC)-Norepinephrine (NE) Systemp. 138
Conclusionsp. 139
Referencesp. 139
Neurobiology of Stress and Risk for Relapsep. 147
Overviewp. 147
Animal Models for Studying the Effects of Stress on Relapse to Drug Seeking: The Reinstatement Procedurep. 148
The Neurobiology of Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Drug Seekingp. 152
Long-Lasting Changes in the Responsivity of the Central Nervous System to CRF: Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Studies with Potential Implications for Reinstatementp. 158
Conclusionsp. 161
Referencesp. 162
Psychosocial Processes Related to Stress and Addiction
Negative Affect and Addictionp. 171
Introductionp. 172
Precisely What Is Negative Affect?p. 174
Historical Perspectives on the Role of Withdrawal, Negative Affect, and Substance Abusep. 176
Drug Expectancy Effects and NAp. 178
Initiation Stage: Drug Use and NAp. 179
Maintenance Stage: Drug Use and NAp. 180
Relapse Stage: Drug Use and NAp. 182
Conclusions and Future Directionsp. 182
Referencesp. 184
Stress and Impulsive Behaviorsp. 191
Introductionp. 191
Impulse Control and Substance Use Disordersp. 192
Reward-Seeking Behavior: Pathological Gambling (PG)p. 192
Habit Behavior: Trichotillomania (TTM)p. 198
Lack of Premeditation: Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED)p. 201
Conclusionsp. 205
Referencesp. 206
Psychosocial Determinants of the Stress Responsep. 211
Introductionp. 211
Sociodemographic Factors and Stress Responsesp. 213
Life Stress Exposurep. 215
Protective Psychosocial Factorsp. 220
Conclusionsp. 222
Referencesp. 222
Individual Differences in Response to Stress and Risk for Addictionp. 227
Introductionp. 227
Stress and the Brain's Motivational Systemsp. 228
Hedonic Homeostasis in Addiction Riskp. 230
Affective Regulation and Vulnerability to Addictionp. 231
Addictions and Abnormalities of HPAC Regulation of Cortisol Secretionp. 232
Risk for Addiction, Central Opioid Function, and Regional Brain Functionp. 235
The VAL[superscript 158]MET Polymorphism and Opioid Functionp. 238
Addiction, Response to Stress, and Hedonic Dysregulationp. 241
Life Events, Behavioral Dispositions, and Addiction Riskp. 243
Conclusionsp. 244
Referencesp. 244
Addiction and Stress in Adolescentsp. 249
Introductionp. 249
Adolescent Developmentp. 250
Life Stress in Adolescencep. 252
Adolescent Stress and Addictive Behaviorsp. 254
Implications for Adolescent Addiction Interventionsp. 257
Summaryp. 258
Referencesp. 259
Clinical Implications: Assessment and Intervention
Assessment of Stress in Research and Clinical Settingsp. 265
Introductionp. 265
The Assessment of Stressful Life Eventsp. 266
The Assessment of Self-Reported Stressp. 269
Biological and Physiological Assessmentp. 273
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) Measuresp. 273
The Sympatho-Adreno-Medullary (SAM) Systemp. 275
The Immune Responsep. 277
Conclusionsp. 278
Referencesp. 280
Assessment of Addictions in Clinical and Research Settingsp. 285
Introductionp. 285
Addiction Screensp. 287
Diagnostic Measuresp. 290
Symptom Severity Measuresp. 291
Behavioral Measuresp. 292
Treatment Planningp. 293
Conclusionsp. 297
Referencesp. 298
Stress, Anxiety, and Addiction: Intervention Strategiesp. 301
Introductionp. 301
Stress-Related Substance Use Disorders (SUDs)p. 303
Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Disorders (SUDs)p. 304
Moderators of the Anxiety and SUD Associationp. 304
Treatment of Comorbid Disordersp. 305
Anxiety and SUD Treatment Program Conceptsp. 306
Anxiety and SUD Treatment Outcomesp. 307
Treatment Studies Reviewedp. 307
Conclusionsp. 311
Referencesp. 312
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disordersp. 315
Epidemiology and Coursep. 315
Genetics of PTSD and Addictionp. 319
Neurobiology of Stress and Substance Abuse Disordersp. 321
Treatment Implicationsp. 322
Summary and Future Directionsp. 326
Referencesp. 326
Novel Pharmacologic Treatment of Stress and Addiction: The Role of CRF and Glucocorticoid Antagonistsp. 333
General Mechanisms of Addictionp. 333
Behavioral Paradigmsp. 334
General Mechanisms of Stress Responsep. 336
Corticotropin-Releasing Factorp. 336
Glucocorticoidsp. 337
CRF Receptorsp. 337
CRF Pharmacologyp. 337
CRF in Addiction and Stressp. 338
Corticosteroids and Addictionp. 341
Stress and Addiction: Mechanistic Overviewp. 341
Clinical Trials with CRF Compoundsp. 342
Conclusionsp. 342
Disclosurep. 343
Referencesp. 343
Current and Future Directions of Research on Stress and Addictive Behaviorsp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Working Modelp. 350
Stress and Vulnerability to Addictionp. 351
Stress and Ongoing Addiction and Relapsep. 354
Factors Affecting Stress and Addiction Interactionsp. 357
Stress, Poor Behavioral Regulation, and Addictionp. 360
Coping Resourcesp. 361
Discussions and Future Directionsp. 361
Conclusionsp. 364
Referencesp. 364
Subject Indexp. 373
Author Indexp. 381
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780123706324
ISBN-10: 0123706327
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 456
Published: 1st January 2007
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.0 x 18.4  x 2.67
Weight (kg): 1.05