Why have some developing country states been more successful at facilitating industrialization than others? An answer to this question is developed by focusing both on patterns of state construction and intervention aimed at promoting industrialization. Four countries are analyzed in detail - South Korea, Brazil, India, and Nigeria - over the twentieth century. The states in these countries varied from cohesive-capitalist (mainly in Korea), through fragmented-multiclass (mainly in India), to neo-patrimonial (mainly in Nigeria). It is argued that cohesive-capitalist states have been most effective at promoting industrialization and neo-patrimonial states the least. The performance of fragmented-multiclass states falls somewhere in the middle. After explaining in detail as to why this should be so, the study traces the origins of these different state types historically, emphasizing the role of different types of colonialisms in the process of state construction in the developing world.
'This manuscript is a tour de force of comparative, cross-regional, historically-based political economy analysis of one of the major issues that faced us in the last century and continues to do so now - why some states have done better than others at development. This type of work is very difficult to do, requiring broad contextual and technical knowledge, a keen sense of politics, and a deep knowledge of individual cases - all linked with excellent analytic capabilities. Professor Kohli has all of these and more.' Thomas Callaghy, University of Pennsylvania 'Atul Kohli's eagerly awaited State-Directed Development is a prime example of how comparative historical sociology can illuminate the biggest, most important issues we face in our time. We are at a moment when one of the grandest projects of the twentieth century - the rise of multiple new states in Africa and Asia on the ashes of European colonial empires - seems at risk of falling to multiple plagues, including AIDS, bloodletting civil wars, megalomaniacal tyrants, and mismanaged economies. Kohli tempers our despair by pointing to a range of variation in developing countries. From the histories of those that have succeeded and failed, as well as those in-between, he draws the recipes that have worked (and not worked) for states to give their citizens a reasonable chance to lead a decent life by inducing industrialization. This is a must-read book.' Joel S. Migdal, University of Washington, Seattle 'Kohli's provocative book rehabilitates the state in face of claims that state sovereignty has declined as a result of globalization. Reviewing the comparative capacity of four states in this admirably grounded project he demonstrates that markets, liberty and security require a strong state. Bringing history back in, he argues that the differences in state capacity of Brazil, India, Nigeria and Korea have been shaped by their distinct colonial experiences.' Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, University of Chicago 'This book amounts to a head-on challenge to what John Stuart Mill once called "the deep slumber of a decided opinion", the opinion that the developing country state should focus on alleviating poverty and providing a market-friendly framework for the private sector. Kohli argues that fast economic growth is unlikely without a more forceful kind of state intervention in support of investor profits, and he illuminates the institutional characteristics of the state that are likely to make such intervention effective-or not. Subsequent research on the political economy of growth will have to take this as a touchstone.' Robert Hunter Wade, London School of Economics 'Atul Kohli's book is a magnificent achievement. it should be read by all students of the development process ...'. Journal of Latin American Studies