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Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III : Topics in Applied Physics - Burkard Hillebrands

Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III

Topics in Applied Physics

By: Burkard Hillebrands (Editor), Andre Thiaville (Editor)

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Published: 1st November 2006
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This third volume of the book on spin dynamics in confined magnetic structures covers central aspects of spin dynamic phenomena, so that researchers can find a comprehensive compilation of the current work in the field. Introductory chapters help newcomers to understand the basic concepts, and the more advanced chapters give the current state of the art for most spin dynamic issues in the milliseconds to femtoseconds range. Both experimental techniques and theoretical work are discussed. The comprehensive presentation of these developments makes this volume very timely and valuable for every researcher working in the field of magnetism.

Precessional Switching of Thin Nanomagnets with Uniaxial Anisotropyp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Basic Facts About Precessional Dynamics in Transverse Fieldp. 3
From Stoner-Wohlfarth Energy Minimization to Precessional Switchingp. 3
Definitions: Geometry and Notationsp. 6
A Tutorial Example: The Bascule Precession of a Isotropic Thin Filmp. 7
Magnetization Trajectory for a Loss-Free Isotropic Film Subjected to a Transverse Fieldp. 7
Switching Speed for a Loss-Free Isotropic Film Subjected to a Transverse Fieldp. 9
Precessional Switching at High Hard-Axis Fieldsp. 12
"All-Electrical" Experimental Methodsp. 12
Evidence of the Quasiperiodic Nature of the Magnetization Motionp. 13
Evidence of Quasiballistic Magnetization Switching Trajectoriesp. 16
Precessional Switching at Moderate Hard-Axis Fields and Zero Dampingp. 19
Classification of the Magnetization Trajectoriesp. 20
Field-Dominated (Switching) Trajectoriesp. 20
Anisotropy-Dominated (Nonswitching) Trajectoriesp. 22
Characteristic Times Involved in a Precessional Switching Event Near and Below H[subscript k]p. 22
Initial Delay, Slow-Down Time and Maximum Speed Timep. 23
Rule of Thumb for the Precession Frequencyp. 24
Minimal Switching Field, Bifurcation Trajectory and its Intrinsic Noise Sensitivityp. 26
Arbitrary Initial Magnetization and Consequences for Nonmacrospin Samplesp. 27
Minimal Reversal Field Versus Minimal Energy Costp. 29
Perspectives for the Speed Scaling of Precessional MRAMp. 30
Damped Nanomagnets: Relaxation-Dominated Precessional Switchingp. 30
Consequences of Finite Dampingp. 31
Loss of Energy and of Periodicityp. 31
Rise-Time Constraintsp. 31
Perturbation Treatment of Finite Dampingp. 32
Energy Loss Per Unit Cycling of the Trajectoryp. 32
Number of Trajectories Gone Through Before Bifurcationp. 33
Bifurcation Field in the Presence of Finite Dampingp. 34
Direct-Write: Biasing the Precession with an Easy-Axis fieldp. 36
Precessional Switching in Magnetic Random Access Memoriesp. 36
Magnetization Trajectories for Combined Easy-Axis and Hard-Axis Fieldsp. 37
Magnetization Trajectories for Nearly Transverse Applied Fieldsp. 38
Magnetization Trajectories for Nearly Antiparallel Appllied Fieldsp. 40
General Case: Lobe Centers and Bounce-Occurrence Criteriap. 41
The Dynamical Astroidp. 43
Derivation of the Dynamical Astroidp. 43
Smallest Switching Field and Extrema of the Dynamical Astroid Curvep. 43
Characteristic Duration of a Precessional Direct-Write Eventp. 45
Generalized Initial Delayp. 45
Main Rotation Timep. 46
Alignment Timep. 46
Pause Intervalp. 47
Precession Frequency for Arbitrary Field Orientationp. 47
Strategies for the Cell Writing and Selection in a Practical Memory Arrayp. 49
The Selectivity and Direct-Write Issues in Precessional MRAMp. 49
Optimal Field Synchronization for Jitter Immunityp. 50
Size of the Addressing Windowp. 50
Conclusionp. 51
Referencesp. 52
Indexp. 55
Spin-Wave Excitations in Finite Rectangular Elementsp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Samples and Experimental Setupp. 60
Experimental Resultsp. 62
Longitudinally Magnetized Long Stripesp. 62
Transversely Magnetized Long Stripesp. 67
Rectangular Elementsp. 72
Analytical Approachp. 75
Longitudinally Magnetized Long Stripesp. 78
Transversely Magnetized Long Stripesp. 81
Rectangular Magnetic Elementsp. 89
Micromagnetic Simulationsp. 93
Outlookp. 98
Conclusionp. 100
Referencesp. 100
Indexp. 103
Ferromagnetic Resonance Force Microscopyp. 105
Introductionp. 105
MRFM Detection of Weakly Interacting Spins (ESR and NMR)p. 107
MRFM in Ferromagnetic Systemsp. 109
Magnetostatic Modesp. 110
Linewidthsp. 112
Scanning Modep. 114
Dependence of the Fundamental Mode on Sample Dimensionsp. 116
Dispersion Relationp. 120
Spatial Mapping of Magnetostatic Modesp. 120
Hidden Modesp. 121
Mapping RF Force Fieldsp. 122
FMRFM in Metal Filmsp. 123
Torque Measurements in a Uniform Fieldp. 124
Mechanical Torque on a Thin Filmp. 125
Magnetization versus Field (M-H) Loopsp. 125
Microresonating Torque Magnetometer ([mu]RTM)p. 126
Bimaterial Micromechanical Calorimeter Sensor for FMRp. 128
Conclusionp. 129
Referencesp. 132
Indexp. 136
Vortex Dynamicsp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Experimental Techniquesp. 138
Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Microscopyp. 138
Brillouin Light Scatteringp. 139
Synchrotron-Based Techniquesp. 140
Excitation Schemesp. 141
Pulsed Precessional Motionp. 141
Microwave Excitationp. 142
The Energy Landscape of Confined Magnetic Structuresp. 142
Experimental Resultsp. 143
Gyroscopic Vortex Motion in Micrometer Sized Ferromagnetic Squares and Disksp. 144
The Modal Spectrum of Permalloy Disksp. 147
Conclusionsp. 155
Referencesp. 155
Indexp. 160
Domain-Wall Dynamics in Nanowires and Nanostripsp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Types of Samples and Domain Wallsp. 163
Wall Types in Nanowiresp. 164
Numerical Resultsp. 164
Comparison to 1D Profilesp. 169
One-Dimensional Effective Modelp. 169
Wall Types in Nanostripsp. 173
Dynamics of a Transverse Wall in a Nanowirep. 174
Numerical Resultsp. 176
Analytical Modelp. 177
Dynamics of a Transverse Wall in a Nanostripp. 187
Dynamics of a Bloch-Point Wall in a Nanowirep. 191
Dynamics of a Vortex Wall in a Nanostripp. 195
General Results for Steady-State Motion of Domain Wallsp. 198
Thiele's Equationsp. 198
Doring's Kinetic Potentialp. 200
Conclusions and Outlookp. 201
Referencesp. 202
Indexp. 205
Domain-Wall Dynamics in Magnetic Logic Devicesp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Domain-Wall Propagation in Nanowires -Velocity and Dynamicsp. 208
Domain-Wall Dynamics in Continuous and Nanostructured Permalloy Filmsp. 209
Domain-Wall Velocity in Permalloy Thin Filmsp. 209
Domain-Wall Behavior in Permalloy Planar Nanowiresp. 210
Domain-Wall Dynamics in Complex Structures for Magnetic Logicp. 214
Magnetic Logic Circuitsp. 214
Domain-Wall Propagation through Corner Structuresp. 216
Domain-Wall Propagation through Logic Junction Structuresp. 219
Referencesp. 221
Indexp. 223
Spin-Transfer Torque and Dynamicsp. 225
Introductionp. 225
Quantum Scatteringp. 233
Semiclassical Transportp. 242
Boltzmann Equation and Drift-Diffusion Approximationp. 243
Spin Pumpingp. 247
Circuit Theoryp. 248
Collinear Transportp. 250
Non-Collinear Transport and Torquep. 253
Leads/Reservoirsp. 258
Lateral Inhomogeneityp. 258
Micromagneticsp. 260
Geometry and Energeticsp. 260
Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert Equationp. 263
The Single or Macrospin Approximationp. 266
Onset of Precessional Statesp. 267
Precessional States: Stability Rangep. 269
Switching and Out-of-Plane Precessional Statesp. 272
Langevin Dynamicsp. 274
The Micromagnetic Regimep. 281
Summaryp. 291
Appendix Drift-Diffusion Solution for a Single Interfacep. 293
Appendix Precession and Spin Transfer in Phase Space: Melnikov's Methodp. 295
Referencesp. 300
Indexp. 306
Spin- and Energy Relaxation of Hot Electrons at GaAs Surfacesp. 309
Introductionp. 309
Review of Spin-Flip Processes in GaAsp. 311
Optical Orientation of Photoexcited Carriersp. 311
Band-Structure Propertiesp. 313
Elliott-Yafet Mechanismp. 316
Dyakonov-Perel Mechanismp. 316
Bir-Aronov-Pikus Mechanismp. 317
Spin-Polarization Dynamicsp. 319
Theory of Spin-Relaxation Dynamicsp. 319
Numerical Resultsp. 322
Spin Decay in a Schottky Barrierp. 325
Experimentsp. 327
Time- and Spin-Resolved 2PPEp. 327
Experimental Setupp. 328
Experimental Results for GaAs (100)p. 330
Comparison Between Experimental and Theoretical Resultsp. 335
Referencesp. 337
Indexp. 340
Indexp. 341
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540201083
ISBN-10: 3540201084
Series: Topics in Applied Physics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 345
Published: 1st November 2006
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.77