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Sphingolipids as Signaling and Regulatory Molecules : Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Charles Chalfant

Sphingolipids as Signaling and Regulatory Molecules

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

By: Charles Chalfant (Editor), Maurizio del Poeta (Editor)


Published: 3rd August 2010
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This book attempts to analyze the latest discoveries in sphingolipid biology and how the alteration of their metabolism leads to altered signaling events and to the development of pathobiological disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, diabetes, inflammation and infectious diseases.

1. An Overview of Sphingolipid Metabolism: From Synthesis to Breakdown Christopher R. Gault, Lina M. Obeid and Yusuf A. Hannun Abstract Sphingolipid Properties in Membranes De Novo Synthesis in the ER Ceramide Transport from the ER to the Golgi Synthesis of Complex Sphingolipids Ceramide Kinase and Ceramidea'1a'Phosphate Catabolizing Complex Sphingolipids and Sphingomyelins into Ceramide The Catabolism of Ceramides and the Final Common Breakdown Pathway Conclusion 2. Sphingolipid Transport Laura Riboni, Paola Giussani and Paola Viani Abstract Introduction Intramembrane Sphingolipid Movements Intermembrane Sphingolipid Transport Conclusion 3. Sphingolipid Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatographya'Ta ndem Mas Spectrometry (HPLCa'MS/MS) Jacek Bielawski, Jason S. Pierce, Justin Snider, Barbara Rembiesa, Zdzislaw M. Szulc and Alicja Bielawska Abstract Introduction Sphingolipids: Structure and Composition LCa'MS Methods for Detection and Analysis of Bioactive Sphingolipids Lipidomic Approach Sample Preparation Analysis of Intact Sphingolipids by Mass Spectrometry Mechanism of Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI/MS) MS Scan Modes Specific Scan Modes for MS/MS Instrumentation Sphingolipid Identification HPLCa'MS/MS Methodology Quantitation Selection of Internal Standards (ISs) Quantitative Calibration Data Handling Alternative Methodology Conclusion 4. Ceramide Synthases: Roles in Cell Physiology and Signaling Johnny Stiban, Rotem Tidhar and Anthony H. Futerman Abstract Introduction Fatty Acid Specificity, Kinetics and Tissue Distribution Inhibitors Posttranslational Modifications Membrane Topology Why Are There So Many Mammalian CerS? Roles of CerS in Signal Transduction and Disease Conclusion 5. Tales and Mysteries of the Enigmatic Sphingomyelin Synthase Family Joost C.M. Holthuis and Chiara Luberto Abstract Sphingomyelin Biosynthesis: An Historical Perspective The Multigenic Sphingomyelin Synthase (SMS) Family Cellular Functions of SMS Family Members Conclusion 6. Ceramide in Stress Response Mariana N. Nikolovaa'Karakashian and Krassimira A. Rozenova Abstract Introduction Chemical Structure and Biophysical Properties of Ceramide Changes in Ceramide Mass During Stress Mechanisms for Ceramide Generation During Stress Mechanisms of Ceramide Effects on Cellular Functions Conclusion 7. Animal Models for Studying the Pathophysiology of Ceramide Toshihiko Kawamori Abstract Introduction Sphingosine Kinase 1/2 Ceramidases Sphingomyelinases (SMase) and Sphingomyelin Synthases (SMS) S1P Lyase The Other GEM for Sphingolipida'Related Enzymes Conclusion 8. Ceramide 1a'Phosphate in Cell Survival and Inflamatory Signaling Antonio Gomeza'Munoz, Patricia Gangoiti, Maria H. Granado, Lide Arana and Alberto Ouro Abstract Introduction Ceramide 1a'Phosphate Synthesis and Degradation Ceramide 1a'Phosphate: A Key Regulator of Cell Growth and Survival Ceramide 1a'Phosphate and the Control of Inflammatory Responses Ceramide 1a'Phosphate Mediates Macrophage Migration Conclusion 9. Ceramidea'1a'Phosphate in Phagocytosis and Calcium Homeostasis Vania Hinkovskaa'Galcheva and James A. Shayman Abstract Ceramidea'1a'Phosphate in Phagocytosis Ceramidea'1a'Phosphate as a Regulator of Calcium Homeostasis Conclusion 10. Extracellular and Intracellular Actions of Sphingosinea'1a'Phosphate Graham M. Strub, Michael Maceyka, Nitai C. Hait, Sheldon Milstien and Sarah Spiegel Abstract Introduction Sphingolipid Metabolism Sphingosine Kinases Evidence for Intracellular Targets of S1P Implications, Future Directions, and Conclusion 11. Glucosylceramide in Humans Maria C. Messner and Myles C. Cabot Abstract Introduction Glucosylceramide Synthesis and Degradation Multiple Functions of Glucosylceramide Conclusion 12. Gangliosides as Regulators of Cell Membrane Organization and Functions Sandro Sonnino and Alessandro Prinetti Abstract Introduction Segregation of Membrane Lipids and Detergenta'Resistant Membrane Domains Lipid Membrane Domain Functions The Regulation of Glycosphingolipid Composition of the Plasma Membranes 13. Cancer Treatment Strategies Targeting Sphingolipid Metabolism Babak Oskouian and Julie D. Saba Abstract Introduction Sphingolipid Metabolism Ceramide Generated via Different Biochemical Routes Can Induce Apoptosis Ceramide as a Mediator of Cell Death by Chemopreventive Agents Ceramide Influences Both the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathways Sphingosinea'1a'Phosphate as a Counterbalance to Ceramide Inhibitory Effects of S1P on Apoptotic Pathways Sphingolipids Regulate Key Signaling Pathways that Control Cell Fate Sphingolipids and Autophagy Other Signaling Pathways Influenced by Sphingolipids Ceramide Regulates Cell Cycle Progression Ceramide and Telomerases Ceramide and S1P in Cancer Stem Cells Effects of S1P on Migration and Metastasis Cancer Cells Exhibit Molecular and Genetic Changes in Sphingolipid Metabolism Targeting Sphingolipids for Cancer Therapy S1P Signaling to Protect Normal Tissues from Therapya'Related Cytotoxicity Conclusion 14. Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetes and Complications: A Role for Sphingolipids? Todd E. Fox and Mark Kester Abstract Diabetes and Insulin Resistance Insulin Resistance and Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism Diabetic Pancreatic Dysfunction and Sphingolipids Diabetic Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Sphingolipids Diabetic Nephropathy and Sphingolipids Diabetic Retinopathy and Sphingolipids Therapeutics That Target Sphingolipid Metabolism or Sphingolipid Signaling in Diabetes Conclusion 15. Roles for Sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Robert C. Dickson Abstract Introduction Sphingolipid Metabolism in S. cerevisiae Membranea'Associated Functions and Processes Signal Transduction Pathways that Require Sphingolipids Longevity and Cellular Aging Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Conclusion and Future Developments 16. Sphingolipid Signaling in Fungal Pathogens Ryan Rhome and Maurizio Del Poeta Abstract Sphingolipid Synthesis Cryptococcus neofomans: Model of Sphingolipid Signaling in Fungi Sphingolipid Signaling in Other Pathogenic Fungi Conclusion 17. Sphingolipids in Parasitic Protozoa Kai Zhang, James D. Bangs and Stephen M. Beverley Abstract Introduction Leishmania Trypanosoma brucei (ssp) and Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosomatid Sphingolipid Synthases Plasmodium falciparum Toxoplasma gondii Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia Conclusion 18. Biosynthesis of Sphingolipids in Plants (and Some of Their Functions) Simone Zauner, Philipp Ternes and Dirk Warnecke Abstract Introduction Pathway of Plant Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Functional Characterization of Genes and Enzymes Involved in Plant Sphingolipid Biosynthesis (2004a'2008) Conclusion 19. Computational Analysis of Sphingolipid Pathway Systems Eberhard O. Voit, Fernando Alvareza'Vasquez and Yusuf A. Hannun Abstract Introduction Sphingolipid Models and Their Potential Uses Conclusion Appendix: Introduction to Tools and Techniques for Ceramidea'Centered Research Kazuyuki Kitatani and Chiara Luberto Abstract Lipid Extraction Identification and Quantification of Steady State Levels of Ceramide Analysis of Ceramide Metabolism The Use of Ceramide Analogues Pharmacological Tools Genetic Tools Conclusion INDEX

ISBN: 9781441967404
ISBN-10: 1441967400
Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology : Book 688
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 291
Published: 3rd August 2010
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.67 x 17.78  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.7