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Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere : Volume 82 - Gordon G. Shepherd

Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere

Volume 82

Hardcover Published: 15th July 2002
ISBN: 9780126394818
Number Of Pages: 304

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Optical instruments are routinely employed to obtain a wealth of information about the atmosphere, including its composition, temperature, and winds. A bewildering variety of optical instruments have been proposed over the years, making it difficult to decide which instrument should be chosen to make a specific measurement. Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere traces the historical development of both spectral and imaging methods and places them in a unified framework relevant to observations of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. The underlying concepts of various measurement methodologies are presented and paired with appropriate applications. A selection of specific spectral imaging instruments, appropriate to illustrate each conceptual type, is described in detail.
Shepherd's work provides both scientists and engineers with an in-depth understanding of the fundamental concepts they need to know in order to plan a program of atmospheric measurements. Expected future methods and developments are also presented. Problems designed to test and enhance the reader's understanding of the material are included in each chapter.

"...an essential read for anyone interested in high resolution spectral remote sensing... very interesting and stimulating..." -Paul R. Hays "...Our knowledge and monitoring capabilities about the state of the atmosphere would be much less without the wealth of remotely sensed data available today. This book, written by an experienced scientist who designed several spectral imagers that became operational on satellites, provides scientists and engineers with an in-depth understanding of the fundamental concepts of spectral imaging. ...I consider the book as a valuable reference for advanced users of data from spectral imagers." -Leopold Haimberger, Vienna

Prefacep. xiii
Observing Atmospheric Radiationp. 1
Atmospheric Radiationp. 1
Measuring Atmospheric Radiationp. 8
The Integrated Emission Ratep. 8
Visible Atmospheric Radiationp. 10
Thermal Atmospheric Radiationp. 10
Ultraviolet Atmospheric Radiationp. 11
The Scope of Spectral Imagingp. 12
One-Dimensional (Vertical) Spatial Informationp. 13
Two-Dimensional (Horizontal-Vertical) Informationp. 16
Three-Dimensional Informationp. 18
Spectral Informationp. 20
Temporal Informationp. 26
Previewp. 28
Problemsp. 29
Spectral Conceptsp. 30
Introductionp. 30
The Spectral Conceptp. 31
Formal Statement of the Fourier Transformp. 33
Fundamental Properties of the Fourier Integralp. 35
Doing a Fourier Integral Without Integrationp. 36
Building Up a Set of Fourier Transformsp. 37
Convolutions and Correlationsp. 38
The Dirac Delta Function and the Dirac Combp. 39
Dirac Delta Functionp. 39
The Dirac Combp. 40
The Discrete Fourier Transformp. 41
The Autocorrelation Function and Power Spectral Densityp. 44
Optical Devices as Linear Dynamical Systemsp. 45
The Diffraction Grating as a Linear Dynamical Systemp. 47
The Fabry-Perot Etalon as a Linear Dynamical Systemp. 51
Problemsp. 52
Instrument Responsivity and Superiorityp. 54
Responsivity of an Elementary Photometerp. 54
The Measurement of Irradiancep. 57
Responsivity for Line and Continuum Sourcesp. 57
Photometer Calibrationp. 59
Generalized Definition of Responsivityp. 61
Jacquinot's Definition of Etenduep. 62
Conservation of Etenduep. 62
Comparison of Astronomical and Atmospheric Sourcesp. 63
Resolving Power and the Superiority of Spectral Imagersp. 63
The Photometer Becomes a Spectrometerp. 63
Dispersion and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating Spectrometerp. 64
Superiority of the Diffraction Grating Spectrometerp. 65
Comparison of Superiority for the Diffraction Grating and Fabry-Perot Spectrometersp. 66
Dispersion, Classification and Nomenclaturep. 66
Problemsp. 68
Imaging Conceptsp. 70
Elementary Detectors and Noisep. 70
Scanning Satellite Imagerp. 72
Overviewp. 72
The ISIS-II Satellite Imagersp. 73
Dynamics Explorer-1 Imagerp. 74
Weather Satellite Imagersp. 76
Introduction to Array Detectorsp. 80
The Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Detectorp. 81
Introduction to Semiconductorsp. 81
Method of Operationp. 82
CCD Readoutp. 84
CCD Characteristicsp. 86
Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 87
Spectral Response and Materialsp. 87
Considerations Specific to Infrared Array Detectorsp. 88
Background Radiationp. 88
Infrared Detector Readoutp. 89
Other Types of Array Detectorsp. 89
Photodiode Arraysp. 89
Charge Injection Devicesp. 90
Intensifiersp. 90
Position Sensitive Arraysp. 91
Early Array Detector Imagersp. 92
Elementary Imagersp. 92
Spectral Imagersp. 93
The KYOKKO Auroral Imagerp. 95
CCD Satellite Imagersp. 95
The Viking Ultra Violet Imager (UVI)p. 95
The Polar VIS Imager and the IMAGE Satellitep. 98
Summaryp. 99
Problemsp. 100
The Fabry-Perot Spectrometerp. 102
Introductionp. 102
The Idealized Etalonp. 103
The Real Etalonp. 107
Elementary Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Configurationp. 108
The Spherical Fabry-Perot Spectrometerp. 109
Scanning Methods for Fabry-Perot Spectrometersp. 112
The Application of Fabry-Perot Spectrometersp. 114
Multiple Ring Aperture Instrumentsp. 114
Axicon Systemp. 116
Low Light Level Applicationsp. 116
Tandem Fabry-Perot Spectrometersp. 117
Stabilized Fabry-Perot Spectrometersp. 119
Applications of the Fabry-Perot Imagerp. 121
Introductionp. 121
PRESTO - A Programmable Etalon Spectrometer for Twilight Observationsp. 121
MORTI and SATI: Hybrid Spatial and Spectral Instrumentsp. 122
Imaging Low Light Level Applicationp. 124
Imaging Winds with an FPS Imagerp. 124
CLIO (Circle to Line Interferometer Optical System)p. 126
Problemsp. 127
The Michelson Interferometerp. 129
Historical Backgroundp. 129
Basic Conceptp. 130
Spectral Resolutionp. 133
Field of Viewp. 134
The Real Michelson Interferometerp. 135
Sampling the Interferogramp. 135
Superiority of the Michelson Interferometerp. 136
Scanning Methods for the Ordinary Michelson Interferometerp. 137
Overviewp. 137
Cube Corner Reflectorsp. 138
Cat's Eye Retro-Reflectorp. 138
The Dynamic Alignment Systemp. 139
Some Atmospheric Applications of the Michelson Interferometerp. 139
Field Wideningp. 142
Problemsp. 149
Multiplexers and Modulatorsp. 151
Spectral Operating Modesp. 151
Multiplexersp. 152
Introductionp. 152
The Hadamard Spectrometerp. 152
Grating Spectrometers with Array Detectorsp. 154
Modulatorsp. 154
The SISAMp. 154
The Birefringent Photometerp. 156
The Grille Spectrometerp. 158
The Correlation Spectrometerp. 160
The Pressure Modulator Radiometer (PMR)p. 160
Instruments for Dayglow Observationsp. 164
Problemsp. 166
Dopper Michelson Interferometryp. 168
The Measurement of Doppler Temperaturep. 168
The Measurement of Doppler Windp. 172
Phase Stepping Interferometryp. 173
The Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometerp. 175
Cube Corner Doppler Michelson Interferometerp. 176
Achromatizing a Field-Widened Michelson Interferometerp. 177
Thermally Stabilizing a Solid Michelson Interferometerp. 178
A Fully Compensated Solid Doppler Michelson Interferometerp. 179
Defocusing a Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometerp. 180
Polarizing Doppler Michelson Interferometersp. 181
Introductionp. 181
PAMI Polarization Statesp. 182
The SOHO SOI (Solar Oscillations Investigation) and GONG Instrumentsp. 183
The Phase Quadrature Michelson Interferometerp. 185
Conceptp. 185
Phase-Shifting with Optical Thin Film Multilayersp. 185
Optimized Reflective Wide-Angle Phase-Stepping MIp. 187
Problemsp. 189
Operational Atmospheric Spectral Imagersp. 191
Introductionp. 191
The Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII)p. 191
Fundamental Spaceflight Considerationsp. 191
WINDII Optical Systemp. 194
The Michelson Interferometerp. 195
Interference Filtersp. 196
Detectorp. 197
The WINDII Bafflep. 197
Calibrationp. 199
Wind Measurement Procedurep. 200
Examples of Results Obtainedp. 201
ERWIN: An E-Region Wind Interferometerp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Instrument Descriptionp. 207
The Michelson Interferometerp. 208
Examples of Measurementsp. 209
MICADO--Michelson Interferometer for Coordinated Auroral Doppler Observationsp. 211
The High-Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI)p. 213
Introductionp. 213
Input Opticsp. 213
The Etalonsp. 215
The Detectorp. 216
HRDI Resultsp. 216
Comparison of HRDI and WINDIIp. 217
CLAES: The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer on UARSp. 220
Introductionp. 220
Instrument Designp. 221
Sample CLAES resultsp. 223
MOPITT--Measurements Of Pollution In The Tropospherep. 223
Problemsp. 227
Future Atmospheric Spectral Imagersp. 230
The TIMED Doppler Imager (TIDI)p. 230
TIDI Overviewp. 230
Instrument Descriptionp. 230
TIDI Data Coveragep. 233
TIDI Science Measurement Summaryp. 233
The Mesospheric Imaging Michelson Interferometer (MIMI)p. 235
Introductionp. 235
General Description of the Instrumentp. 235
Michelson Interferometerp. 237
Filter Selectionp. 239
Appearance of the O[subscript 2] Lines in the Field of Viewp. 239
MIMI Statusp. 239
The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport Studies (SWIFT)p. 240
Introduction and Motivationp. 240
Conceptp. 241
Instrument Descriptionp. 244
The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)p. 248
The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS)p. 251
Problemsp. 254
Grating Spectrometers as Spectral Imagersp. 255
Introductionp. 255
Fundamental Aspects of the Diffraction Grating Spectrometerp. 257
Selected Airglow Missions Accomplishedp. 258
Mariner 10 Ultraviolet Airglow Experimentp. 258
The Voyager Mission Ultraviolet Experimentp. 260
Arizona Imager Spectrograph (AIS)p. 260
Single-Element Imaging Spectrograph (SEIS)p. 262
Ground-Based Instrumentsp. 264
Selected Atmospheric Missions Accomplishedp. 266
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)p. 266
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE)p. 267
Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS)p. 267
CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA)p. 269
Future Atmospheric Missions using Grating Spectrographsp. 271
GOMOS and SCIAMACHY on Envisatp. 271
Ozone Dynamics Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ODUS)p. 272
Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO)p. 273
Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS)p. 274
Problemsp. 277
Postscriptp. 279
Referencesp. 281
List of Symbolsp. 297
List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 300
Author Indexp. 305
Subject Indexp. 310
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780126394818
ISBN-10: 0126394814
Series: International Geophysics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 304
Published: 15th July 2002
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.4 x 17.1  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.81