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Spatial Optimization for Managed Ecosystems : Complexity in Ecological Systems (Hardcover) - John Hof

Spatial Optimization for Managed Ecosystems

Complexity in Ecological Systems (Hardcover)

Hardcover Published: 1st April 1998
ISBN: 9780231106368
Number Of Pages: 320
For Ages: 22+ years old

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Spatial optimization is a methodology used to maximize or minimize a management objective, given the limited area, finite resources, and spatial relationships in an ecosystem. Optimization approaches can be used to evaluate a great variety of options and allow tradeoff analyses that might be impossible with other methods. This book presents ideas and methods for directly optimizing the spatial layout of the landscape features in which an ecosystem functions. The problems Hof and Bevers address are complex, and the book relies heavily on mathematical presentations; the ideas are explained in a tutorial fashion that allows readers to grasp the general principals even if they skip the math. The first of four parts treats static spatial relationships that reflect the importance of shape, size, and proximity within an ecosystem. Part 2 considers spatial autocorrelation in a chance-constrained modeling framework. Part 3 discusses dynamic spatial changes within modeled ecosystems, and the final section focuses on diversity and sustainability. Although most discussion concerns wildlife habitat issues, the authors also include chapters on recreation, timber management, water runoff, and pest management.

The authors do an excellent job of explaining in words, diagrams, and mathematical symbolism the nature of spatial modeling and optimization across several ecosystem examples. . . . Recommend[ed] . . . as a must read for any operations researcher in the environmental area. Also recommend[ed] to any OR professional who has an interest in how our natural resources are allocated and used.

Series Editors' Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. 1
Viewpointp. 1
Organizationp. 2
Methodsp. 5
Solvability of (0-1) Integer Programsp. 6
Solvability of Nonlinear Programsp. 7
A Final Introductory Notep. 8
Static Spatial Relationshipsp. 11
A Cellular Model of Wildlife Habitat Spatial Relationshipsp. 14
Edge Effectsp. 16
Wildlife Habitat Fragmentation Effectsp. 18
Wildlife Habitat Size Thresholdsp. 22
An Examplep. 22
The Problemp. 22
Resultsp. 24
Discussionp. 28
Appendixp. 31
A Geometric Model of Wildlife Habitat Spatial Relationshipsp. 35
Spatial Effectsp. 36
An Examplep. 36
Resultsp. 40
Discussionp. 44
Spatial Supply-Demand Equilibrium: A Recreation Examplep. 46
The Travel Cost Modelp. 46
The Case of More Than One Proposed Sitep. 47
A Spatial Recreation Allocation Modelp. 48
An Examplep. 52
The Problemp. 52
Resultsp. 55
Discussionp. 58
Spatial Autocorrelationp. 59
Chance-Constrained Programmingp. 60
Individual Chance Constraintsp. 60
Joint Probability Chance Constraintp. 61
Total Probability Chance Constraintp. 62
Chance-Maximizing Programsp. 63
Maxmin Chance-Maximizing Programmingp. 63
Joint Probability Chance-Maximizing Programmingp. 65
Total Probability Chance-Maximizing Programmingp. 65
Approximation of the CDFp. 66
A Cellular Timber Model with Spatial Autocorrelationp. 68
An Examplep. 69
The Problemp. 69
Resultsp. 73
Discussionp. 80
A Geometric Wildlife Model with Spatial Autocorrelation and Habitat Connectivityp. 81
Theoryp. 82
Connectivityp. 82
Spatial Autocorrelationp. 83
Chance Maximizationp. 84
Optimizationp. 84
Circlesp. 85
Rectanglesp. 87
An Examplep. 90
The Problemp. 90
Resultsp. 91
Discussionp. 97
Pragmatic Approaches to Handling Risk and Uncertaintyp. 99
The Problemp. 99
Post-Optimization Calculationsp. 100
An Examplep. 101
Row-Total Variance Reductionp. 107
Dynamic Movementp. 113
Methodsp. 114
A Cellular Model of Wildlife Population Growth and Dispersalp. 118
The Modelp. 119
An Examplep. 122
The Problemp. 122
Resultsp. 124
Continuous Choice Variablesp. 129
Resultsp. 130
Discussionp. 134
The Black-Footed Ferret: A Case Studyp. 135
Spatial Optimization Modelp. 136
Ferret Reintroduction in South Dakotap. 141
Spatial Definitionp. 142
Ferret Dispersalp. 142
Net Population Growth Ratep. 143
Ferret Releasesp. 143
Ferret Carrying Capacityp. 144
Model Resultsp. 145
A Cellular Model of Pest Managementp. 153
The Modelp. 154
An Examplep. 159
The Problemp. 159
Resultsp. 160
Discussionp. 169
A Nested-Schedule Model of Stormflowp. 170
The Spatial Optimization Approachp. 171
Two Examplesp. 176
Resultsp. 181
Discussionp. 184
Diversity and Sustainabilityp. 187
Species Richness Objective Functionsp. 191
Determining the Optimal Steady Statep. 192
A Steady-State Examplep. 195
Resultsp. 196
Allocation over Time and Spacep. 201
Resultsp. 203
Appendixp. 205
Declining Monotonicity of Natural Logarithm Transformationsp. 206
The Logistic Distributionp. 207
Sustainability of Species Richnessp. 208
The Modeling Approachp. 208
Objective Functionsp. 209
A Coastal Douglas-fir Case Studyp. 212
Linear Approximation of Objective Functionsp. 213
Model Reductionp. 215
Sensitivity to Minimum Harvest Agep. 215
Sensitivity to Planning Horizon Lengthp. 221
Accounting for Mortalityp. 222
Single-Species Emphasisp. 223
A New Definition for a Regulated Forestp. 224
Appendixp. 227
Synthesisp. 230
An Adaptive Management Contextp. 231
Simulation Versus Optimizationp. 234
Referencesp. 237
Indexp. 249
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780231106368
ISBN-10: 023110636X
Series: Complexity in Ecological Systems (Hardcover)
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 320
Published: 1st April 1998
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.55