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Spaces of Social Exclusion - Aram Eisenschitz

Paperback Published: 1st October 2005
ISBN: 9780415280891
Number Of Pages: 272

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In all developed countries - though to widely varying extents - a minority of the population suffers from deprivation. The Labour Government in Britain in particular has sought to conceptualize and deal with this through the notion of 'Social Exclusion': similar ideas have been found in other countries.
"Spaces of Social Exclusion" explores the forms of this contemporary economic and social disadvantage and in particular, its social and spatial causes, and the role of space in policies to address disadvantage.
Part 1 introduces contemporary and historical conceptualizations and ideologies surrounding social exclusion and poverty. It describes the complex social and spatial patterns of disadvantage in advanced capitalist countries. Part 2 goes on to analyse the origins of social exclusion by examining the different spheres of disadvantage and their relations, emphasizing the role of space, place and scale. It brings together and integrates, research on diverse aspects of social exclusion and the varied processes which produce it. Part 3 discusses different strategies for overcoming social exclusion and their relation to theories considered in Part 2. It is also concerned with presenting and criticizing policy ideas from across the political spectrum.
The book aims to demonstrate the similarity throughout the advanced capitalist countries of many of the processes that create social exclusion and the way that spatial patterns constitute and reproduce exclusion.

List of illustrationsp. ix
Prefacep. xi
List of abbreviationsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
The reality, ideologies and management of povertyp. 9
Management of the poor, ideologies of povertyp. 11
The creation of povertyp. 11
Obscuring the causes of povertyp. 13
Coercion versus incorporation, separation versus integrationp. 14
Pushing the poor into workp. 18
Inventing and tackling the underclass and the culture of povertyp. 21
Intervening in consumptionp. 24
Political inclusion and exclusionp. 25
Continuity, cycles and dilemmasp. 26
Space and the management of the poorp. 28
Poverty policy uses spacep. 28
The nation and the worldp. 29
The nation, the locality and the individualp. 33
The nation and its regionsp. 35
The city, 'rurality' and the suburbsp. 36
The neighbourhoodp. 38
Conclusion: contortions of space in the management of povertyp. 43
Patterns of social exclusionp. 46
What are poverty and social exclusion?p. 46
Incomesp. 51
Employment and the state's reaction to itp. 52
Aspects of deprivation and their relation to incomep. 54
Social oppressions: poverty and social exclusionp. 57
Neighbourhoods, localities, regionsp. 61
Conclusionp. 63
The causes of social exclusionp. 65
Introduction to Part IIp. 65
Jobs, the economy and social exclusionp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Capitalism, poor jobs and unemploymentp. 67
The systematic unevenness of poverty creationp. 71
The deepening of employment-related poverty in the present periodp. 74
A long crisis of capitalismp. 81
Conclusionp. 84
How the state excludesp. 85
The state and the poorp. 85
State spending, taxation and povertyp. 86
How public services fail the poorp. 88
Neoliberal reforms of state services and their impact on social exclusionp. 91
Capitalism, the family, and incomes from the statep. 93
The breakdown of the postwar settlementp. 96
Cuts in benefits and imposition of family dependencep. 98
Retirement incomes and the casino economyp. 99
'Welfare to work'p. 101
Conclusion: the neoliberal state exacerbates inequalityp. 104
Social reproduction and social exclusionp. 106
Working-class reproduction: privatism and inequalityp. 106
The rise of the nuclear family and change in gender divisions of labourp. 107
The decline of neighbourhood survival strategies of the poorp. 108
Authority, cultural capital and stigmatisationp. 110
The market versus decent housing for the poorp. 111
Residential exclusion and concentration of the poorp. 113
Access to services and service spacesp. 118
Immobilised by the carp. 120
Damaged by commoditiesp. 121
Committing crime and disorder in poor neighbourhoodsp. 122
The impact of crime on the poor: fear and policingp. 124
Social life deepens povertyp. 125
Excluding societiesp. 128
Excluded in every field of lifep. 128
Popular attitudes to the poorp. 128
Social oppressions, class and social exclusionp. 131
National regimes of social exclusionp. 135
Conclusion to Part IIp. 139
Strategies against social exclusionp. 141
Consensus strategies and their ambiguitiesp. 143
Political agreement and differencep. 143
Welfare to workp. 145
Education, training and 'enterprise'p. 147
The new localism: decentralisation and spatial fragmentationp. 148
Small area regeneration: local targeting and community mobilisationp. 151
Entrepreneurship and small businessp. 156
The social economyp. 157
Environmental improvementp. 161
Partnership: governance, not governmentp. 164
Conclusionp. 167
Neoliberalism: markets for the poor?p. 169
Opening opportunities for the poor through marketsp. 169
Why neoliberal strategy fails the poorp. 175
Reinterpreting the promise and failures of neoliberalismp. 181
Racism and rightwing populism as a strategy against povertyp. 183
Conservative interventionism: social inclusion?p. 186
From Thatcherism to New Labourp. 186
From the underclass to the socially excludedp. 189
Conservative interventionism versus social exclusionp. 191
Post-industrial cities, cultural diversity and social mixp. 195
Failures of social inclusionp. 197
The contradictions of conservative interventionismp. 206
Associationalism: social democracy from below?p. 209
Postmodern social democracyp. 209
Social theory and the optimism of associationalismp. 210
Social inclusion for allp. 212
Critique of associationalismp. 216
Associationalism and the ghost of class strugglep. 220
Socialist strategy for inclusionp. 222
From object to subject of politicsp. 222
Who can fight exclusion? The scales of collectivityp. 224
Political focuses, holism and the complexity of exclusionp. 228
The social economy: small-scale and community socialisationp. 231
Different scales of strugglep. 232
Influencing and changing the statep. 233
An inclusive socialist societyp. 235
Bibliographyp. 239
Indexp. 263
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415280891
ISBN-10: 0415280893
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 272
Published: 1st October 2005
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.42 x 16.15  x 1.4
Weight (kg): 0.49
Edition Number: 1