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Space Physics : An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres - May-Britt Kallenrode

Space Physics

An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres

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Published: 1st April 2004
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Observations and physical concepts are interwoven to give basic explanations of phenomena and also show the limitations in these explanations and identify some fundamental questions.

Compared to conventional plasma physics textbooks this book focuses on the concepts relevant in the large-scale space plasmas. It combines basic concepts with current research and new observations in interplanetary space and in the magnetospheres.

Graduate students and young researchers starting to work in this special field of science, will find the numerous references to review articles as well as important original papers helpful to orientate themselves in the literature.

Emphasis is on energetic particles and their interaction with the plasma as examples for non-thermal phenomena, shocks and their role in particle acceleration as examples for non-linear phenomena.

This second edition has been updated and extended. Improvements include: the use of SI units; addition of recent results from SOHO and Ulysses; improved treatment of the magnetosphere as a dynamic phenomenon; text restructured to provide a closer coupling between basic physical concepts and observed complex phenomena.

 

 

 

 

From the reviews of the third edition:

"It's delighting to read such a book! Not only clear and precise, it covers a huge amount of information on a vast and difficult domain. ... An appendix with symbols, useful relations, numbers and 52 Internet resources is followed by a list of 573 references. ... I warmly recommend this book for students, young researchers or specialists as like the author said, focus is on concepts rather than on detailed mathematical analysis. Everyone could take benefits of the reading." (Jean-Claude Jodogne, Physicalia, Vol. 57 (3), 2005)

Introductionp. 1
Neutral Gases and Plasmasp. 1
Plasmas in Spacep. 2
A Brief History of Space Researchp. 5
Exercises and Problemsp. 8
Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fieldsp. 9
Electromagnetic Fieldsp. 9
Maxwell's Equations in Vacuump. 10
Transformation of Field Equationsp. 11
Generalized Ohm's Lawp. 12
Energy Equation of the Electromagnetic Fieldp. 12
Particle Motion in Electromagnetic Fieldsp. 14
Lorentz Force and Gyrationp. 14
Drifts of Particles in Electromagnetic Fieldsp. 17
The Concept of the Guiding Centerp. 17
Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields: Ex B Driftp. 18
Magnetic and Gravitational Fieldsp. 19
Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fieldsp. 20
Curvature Driftp. 20
Drifts Combined with Changes in Particle Energyp. 21
Drift Currents in Plasmasp. 22
Adiabatic Invariantsp. 22
First Adiabatic Invariant: The Magnetic Momentp. 23
Magnetic Mirrors and Bottlesp. 25
Second Adiabatic Invariant: Longitudinal Invariantp. 27
Third Adiabatic Invariant: Flux Invariantp. 29
Summaryp. 29
Exercises and Problemsp. 29
Magnetohydrodynamicsp. 31
From Hydrodynamics to Magnetohydrodynamicsp. 32
Partial and Convective Derivativesp. 32
Equation of Motion or Momentum Balancep. 33
Equation of Continuityp. 38
Equation of Statep. 39
Basic Equations of MHDp. 40
Two-Fluid Descriptionp. 41
Magnetohydrostaticsp. 42
Magnetic Pressurep. 43
Magnetic Tensionp. 44
Magnetohydrokinematicsp. 47
Frozen-in Magnetic Fieldsp. 47
Deformation and Dissipation of Fieldsp. 49
Reconnectionp. 54
The Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamop. 56
Debye Shieldingp. 59
Summaryp. 62
Exercises and Problemsp. 63
Plasma Wavesp. 65
What is a Wave?p. 66
Magnetohydrodynamic Wavesp. 67
Linearization of the Equations: Perturbation Theory.p. 67
Alfven Wavesp. 69
Magneto-Sonic Wavesp. 70
Electrostatic Waves in Non-Magnetic Plasmasp. 73
Plasma Oscillationsp. 73
Electron Plasma Waves (Langmuir Waves)p. 75
Ion-Acoustic Waves (Ion Waves)p. 76
Electrostatic Waves in Magnetized Plasmasp. 77
Electron Oscillations Perpendicular to B (Upper Hybrid Frequency)p. 77
Electrostatic Ion Waves Perpendicular to B (Ion Cyclotron Waves)p. 78
pLower Hybrid Frequencyp. 78
Electromagnetic Waves in Non-Magnetized Plasmasp. 79
Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Plasmasp. 81
Electromagnetic Waves Perpendicular to BQp. 81
Waves Parallel to the Magnetic Field: Whistler (R-Waves) and L-Wavesp. 83
Summaryp. 85
Exercises and Problemsp. 85
Kinetic Theoryp. 87
The Distribution Functionp. 87
Phase Space and Distribution Functionp. 87
Maxwell's Velocity Distributionp. 88
Other Distributionsp. 89
Distribution Function and Measured Quantitiesp. 92
Equations of Kinetic Theoryp. 92
The Boltzmann Equationp. 92
The Vlasov Equationp. 93
The Fokker-Planck Equationp. 95
Collisionsp. 97
Collisions Between Neutralsp. 97
Collisions Between Charged Particlesp. 99
Summaryp. 101
Exercises and Problemsp. 101
Sun and Solar Wind: Plasmas in the Heliospherep. 103
The Sunp. 103
Nuclear Fusionp. 105
Structure of the Sunp. 106
The Solar Atmospherep. 107
The Coronal Magnetic Fieldp. 108
The Solar Windp. 109
Propertiesp. 110
Solar Wind Modelsp. Ill
Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Accelerationp. 115
The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)p. 116
Spiral Structurep. 116
Sector Structurep. 118
The Ballerina Modelp. 118
Corotating Interaction Regionsp. 120
Plasma Waves in Interplanetary Spacep. 121
Power-Density Spectrump. 122
Waves or Turbulence?p. 123
The Three-Dimensional Heliospherep. 125
The Active Sunp. 127
The Solar Cyclep. 127
A Simple Model of the Solar Cyclep. 128
The Heliosphere During the Solar Cyclep. 130
Flares and Coronal Mass Ejectionsp. 131
Electromagnetic Radiationp. 131
Classes of Flaresp. 135
Coronal Mass Ejectionsp. 136
Coronal Mass Ejections, Flares, and Coronal Shocksp. 138
Models of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)p. 139
Models of Flaresp. 141
Magnetic Clouds: CMEs in Interplanetary Spacep. 143
Interplanetary Shocksp. 144
Shockp. Waves
Information, Dissipation, and Non-Linearityp. 147
The Shock's Rest Framep. 148
Collisionless Shock Wavesp. 149
Shock Conservation Lawsp. 150
Jump Conditions and Discontinuitiesp. 152
Shock Geometryp. 153
Fast and Slow Shocksp. 154
The Coplanarity Theoremp. 156
The Shock Normal Directionp. 156
Summaryp. 157
Exercises and Problemsp. 157
Energetic Particles in the Heliospherep. 159
Particle Populations in the Heliospherep. 159
Solar Energetic Particles and Classes of Flaresp. 162
Interplanetary Transport - Theoretical Backgroundp. 166
Spatial Diffusionp. 166
Pitch Angle Diffusionp. 173
Diffusion in Momentum Spacep. 175
Wave-Particle Interactionsp. 175
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 178
Transport Equationsp. 179
Interplanetary Propagation - Observationsp. 182
Fits with a Transport Equationp. 182
Analysis of Magnetic Field Fluctuationsp. 183
Comparison Between Both Approachesp. 184
Particle Acceleration at Shocks - Theoryp. 186
Shock Drift Acceleration (SDA)p. 186
Diffusive Shock Accelerationp. 189
Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Self-Generated Turbulencep. 192
Stochastic Accelerationp. 194
The Shock as a Non-Linear Systemp. 195
Summary Shock Accelerationp. 196
Particles at Shocks in Interplanetary Spacep. 197
Low-Energy Particles (Tens of keV) at Traveling Shocksp. 198
High-Energetic Particles (MeVs) at Traveling Shocksp. 201
Particles at Planetary Bow Shocksp. 203
Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs)p. 205
Variationsp. 205
Modulation Modelsp. 211
Summaryp. 215
Exercises and Problemsp. 215
The Terrestrial Magnetospherep. 217
The Geomagnetic Fieldp. 218
Description of the Geomagnetic Fieldp. 218
Variability of the Internal Fieldp. 221
The Terrestrial Dynamop. 224
Topology of the Magnetospherep. 226
Overviewp. 226
The Magnetopausep. 227
Polar Cuspsp. 230
The Tail and the Polar Capsp. 230
Magnetosheath and Bow Shockp. 232
Plasmas and Currents in the Magnetospherep. 234
The Atmospherep. 234
The Ionospherep. 236
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Couplingp. 240
The Plasmaspherep. 243
The Geospherep. 245
The Outer Magnetospherep. 246
The Open Magnetospherep. 246
Convection of Plasma Into the Magnetospherep. 247
Flux Transfer Eventsp. 250
Release of Accumulated Matter: Substormsp. 251
Geomagnetic Disturbancesp. 253
Daily Variationsp. 253
Geomagnetic Indicesp. 253
Geomagnetic Pulsationsp. 254
Geomagnetic Stormsp. 255
Geomagnetic Activity on Longer Time Scalesp. 256
Auroraep. 259
Historical Excursionp. 260
Beginning of the Scientific Analysisp. 262
Modern Interpretationp. 265
Electron Accelerationp. 265
Excitation of the Atmospherep. 267
Shape and Local Timep. 268
Energetic Particles in the Magnetospherep. 269
The Radiation Beltsp. 269
Galactic Cosmic Rays - St0rmer Orbitsp. 279
Solar Energetic Particles - Polar Cap Absorptionp. 281
Magnetospheric Modelingp. 282
Summaryp. 283
Exercises and Problemsp. 284
Planetary Magnetospheresp. 285
The Planetsp. 285
Planets with a Magnetic Fieldp. 286
Mercuryp. 287
Jupiterp. 288
Saturnp. 290
Uranusp. 291
Neptunep. 293
Planets Without a Magnetic Fieldp. 294
Comparison of Planetary Magnetospheresp. 295
Structures of Planetary Magnetospheresp. 295
Sizesp. 296
Plasma Sourcesp. 297
Upstream of the Bow Shock: The Foreshocksp. 298
p. 299
Summaryp. 301
Exercises and Problemsp. 302
Solar-Terrestrial Relationshipsp. 303
Solar-Terrestrial Relationships: Overviewp. 303
Responses of the Upper Atmosphere to Solar Variabilityp. 305
Polar Cap Absorptions and Ozonep. 307
Thermospheric Circulationp. 309
The Solar Cycle, Sector Boundaries, Droughts, and Thunderstormsp. 311
Solar Activity, Climate, and Culturep. 312
Sun and Weatherp. 314
Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Solar Cycle Lengthp. 318
The Technical Environment and Solar Activityp. 318
Instrumentationp. 321
Field Instrumentsp. 321
The Magnetic Fieldp. 322
Electric Field Measurementsp. 324
Wave Measurementsp. 325
Plasma Instrumentsp. 326
Instruments for Dense Plasmasp. 326
Instruments for Rarefied Plasmasp. 328
Energetic Particle Instrumentsp. 329
Supplementary Ground-Based Observationsp. 331
Appendixp. 333
List of Symbolsp. 333
Useful Equations in the SI and cgs Systemp. 335
Useful Relationsp. 337
Vector Calculusp. 337
Cylindrical Coordinatesp. 338
Spherical Coordinatesp. 338
Useful Numbersp. 339
Fundamental Constantsp. 339
Numbers in Plasmasp. 339
Referencesp. 341
Indexp. 357
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540206170
ISBN-10: 3540206175
Series: Advanced Texts in Physics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 482
Published: 1st April 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.05
Weight (kg): 0.91
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised