The outstanding Russian mathematician Sophia Kovalevskya lived and worked in the second half of the 19th century. Her talents were outstanding. She lived in a century when Russia was making great strides in many branches of knowledge: the brilliant chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev put forward his periodical system of elements, the basis of modern chemistry; Ivan Sechenov became famous for his research in physiology and the cerebral reflexes, while Alexander Stoletov laid the foundations of electronics. Russian mathematics also achieved great successes. At the turn of the 19th century the celebrated Lobachevsky originated a new geometry; Ostrogardsky and Bunyakovsky made valuable contributions to mathematical science; Academician Pafnuty Chebyshev was known the world over. Sophia Kovalevskaya ranks on a level with these scholars.