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Soft Matter Physics : An Introduction - Maurice Kleman

Soft Matter Physics

An Introduction

Hardcover Published: 1st October 2002
ISBN: 9780387952673
Number Of Pages: 637

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Many materials have complex structural and dynamic properties intermediate between those of crystals and fluids. Among these are liquid crystals, with their well-known orientational order; colloids; polymer solutions and melts; foams; and gels; collectively these have come to be called "soft matter." These materials generally consist of organic molecules that interact weakly; as a result, thermal fluctuations, external fields, and boundary effects strongly influence their structure and properties. This sensitivity raises interesting new problems in basic physics, chemistry, and materials science; offers a path of thinking about some processes in biological systems; and opens numerous possibilities for technological applications. This textbook for graduate students in physics or chemical physics begins with a discussion of chemical bonds, interactions between particles, and the resulting molecular arrangements. The concept of order parameter leads to a discussion of phase transitions, elasticity and dynamics, followed by a review of fractals and growth phenomena. A significant portion of the book deals with defects of topological nature that accompany various types of order. The book concludes with chapters on surface phenomena, stability of colloidal systems, and structural properties of polymers. The detailed exposition, the emphasis on physical principles, and the exercises at the end of each chapter will make this book a valuable introduction for graduate students and researchers to this rapidly growing field.

Industry Reviews

From the reviews:

"This book is an attempt to show the unity of soft matter systems. ... It is noteworthy that the authors have emphasized and discussed in detail that the order parameter has two characteristics: an amplitude and a phase (also called a degeneracy parameter). ... This book gives the conceptual means to classify the various types of singularities of an ordered medium. ... This book will be very useful for researchers and postgraduate students." (K. M. Salikhov, Applied Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 27 (3-4), 2004)

"This monography on soft condensed matter originates from a series of lectures given by the authors ... . The book is clearly written by two world leading experts of the field, it is an excellent basis for a third cycle course on the physics of liquid crystals. The bibliography is up-to-date and a list of valuable interesting references is added. ... this book presents in a condensed but clear way many facets of a very rich and fascinating field. We recommend it ... ." (Jean-Pierre Gaspard, Physicalia, Vol. 26 (1), 2004)

Forewordp. v
Series Prefacep. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Condensed Matter: General Characters, the Chemical Bond, and Particle Interactionsp. 1
Entropy in Disordered Systemsp. 2
Central Forces and Directional Forces Between Atomsp. 3
Metallic Bondp. 4
Bonds Formed by Fluctuating Dipolesp. 4
Covalent Bondp. 5
Ionic Bondp. 5
From Ionic Bond to Covalent Bond in Crystalsp. 7
Forces Between Moleculesp. 7
Electrostatic Bond in a Dielectric Mediump. 7
Electric Dipolesp. 8
Induced Dipoles, Polarizabilityp. 11
Repulsive Forcesp. 13
Empirical Potentials of Interactionsp. 18
Water, Hydrogen Bond, and Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Effectsp. 19
van der Waals Forces Between Macroscopic Particlesp. 21
Pairwise Summation of Molecular Forces; Hamaker Constantp. 21
Retardation Effectsp. 22
London Interactions in a Medium, Lifshitz Theoryp. 27
Casimir Interactionsp. 28
Polymers and Biological Moleculesp. 29
Synthetic Polymersp. 29
Aminoacids, Proteinsp. 31
DNAp. 36
Associations of Proteins: TMV, Microtubulesp. 36
Atomic and Molecular Arrangementsp. 42
Atomic Orderp. 42
Packing Densitiesp. 42
Liquids and Amorphous Mediap. 45
Geometrical Frustrationp. 47
Incommensurate Phases and Quasicrystalsp. 49
Molecular Orderp. 53
Plastic Crystalsp. 53
The Building Blocks of Liquid Crystalsp. 55
Classification of the Mesomorphic Phasesp. 59
Isotropic Phasesp. 69
Perturbations of the Crystalline Orderp. 71
Weak Perturbationsp. 71
Strong Perturbationsp. 72
The Order Parameter: Amplitude and Phasep. 76
The Order Parameter Spacep. 77
Superfluid Heliump. 77
Heisenberg Ferromagnetsp. 78
X-Y Ferromagnetsp. 79
Uniaxial Nematicsp. 80
Crystalline Solidsp. 82
Order-Disorder Transitions in Alloysp. 83
The Specific Order Parameter of Liquid Crystals: The Directorp. 83
Microscopic Definitionp. 83
Macroscopic Propertiesp. 86
Light Propagation in Anisotropic Media; Application to Director Fieldsp. 90
Fresnel Equationp. 90
Ordinary and Extraordinary Wavesp. 92
Observations in Polarized Light. Microscopyp. 95
Phase Transitionsp. 105
Landau-de Gennes Model of the Uniaxial Nematic-Isotropic Phase Transitionp. 106
Nematic Order and Statistical Theory of Rigid Rodlike Particlesp. 109
Free Energy of a Solution of Spherical Particlesp. 109
Free Energy of a Solution of Rigid Rodsp. 113
Maier-Saupe Mean Field Theory of the Isotropic-Nematic Transitionp. 115
The Smectic A-Nematic Transitionp. 117
Order Parameterp. 117
Ginzburg-Landau Expansionp. 118
Analogy with Superconductorsp. 120
Characteristic Lengthsp. 121
Anomalies of K[subscript 2] and K[subscript 3] Coefficientsp. 123
Abrikosov Phases with Dislocationsp. 124
Kosterlitz-Thouless Model of Phase Transitionsp. 129
Elasticity of Mesomorphic Phasesp. 135
Uniaxial Nematics and Cholestericsp. 135
Elastic Free Energy Densityp. 135
Geometrical Interpretations of Director Deformationsp. 137
Material Elastic Constantsp. 140
Lamellar Phasesp. 143
Free Energy Densityp. 143
Splay and Saddle-Splay Deformationsp. 145
Free Energy Density for Small Deformationsp. 148
Free Energy of a Nematic Liquid Crystal in an External Fieldp. 149
Standard Applications of the Elasticity of Nematicsp. 153
Minimization of the Free Energy in the Generic Casep. 153
Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Filmp. 157
External Field Effects: Characteristic Lengths and Frederiks Transitionsp. 161
Standard Applications of the Elasticity of Smecticsp. 164
Smectic Phase with Small Deformationsp. 164
Smectic Phase with Large Deformations and Topological Deformationsp. 167
Thermodynamic Fluctuationsp. 170
Thermodynamic Fluctuations in Nematicsp. 171
Thermodynamic Fluctuations in Smecticsp. 173
One-Dimensional Variational Problemp. 174
Fixed Boundary Conditionsp. 174
Soft Boundary Conditionsp. 176
Formulae for Fourier Transformsp. 177
Dynamics of Isotropic and Anisotropic Fluidsp. 184
Velocity Field and Stress Tensorp. 185
Material Derivatives and Components of Fluid Motionp. 185
Body and Surface Forces. Stress Tensorp. 187
Isotropic Fluid in Motionp. 189
Conservation of Mass: Contunuity Equationp. 189
Linear Momentum Equationp. 189
Energy Balance Equationp. 191
Entropy Production Equationp. 192
Viscous Stress Tensorp. 195
Navier-Stokes Equations. Reynolds Number. Laminar and Turbulent Flowp. 196
Nematodynamics in Ericksen-Leslie Modelp. 198
Angular Momentum Equationp. 199
Energy Balance Equationp. 200
Entropy Production Equationp. 200
Nondissipative Dynamicsp. 202
Dissipative Dynamicsp. 202
Nematodynamics in Harvard Theoryp. 205
Director Dynamics and Dissipative Stress Tensorp. 205
Summary of Nematodynamicsp. 206
Applications of Nematodynamicsp. 210
Nematic Viscosimetryp. 210
Flow-Aligning and Tumbling Nematics with Director in the Shear Planep. 213
Instabilities with the Director Field Perpendicular to the Shear Planep. 217
Hydrodynamic Modesp. 218
Fractals and Growth Phenomenap. 223
Basic Fractal Conceptsp. 224
Length of a Linep. 224
Koch Curvep. 225
Self-Similarityp. 227
Estimating Fractal Dimensionsp. 228
Deterministic and Stochastic Fractalsp. 230
Brownian Motion and Random Walksp. 232
Pair Correlation Functionp. 233
Inner and Outer Cutoffsp. 235
Percolationp. 235
Geometrical Percolationp. 235
Percolation and Second-Order Phase Transitionsp. 239
Finite Clusters at the Percolation Thresholdp. 240
Fractal Dimension of the Percolation Clusterp. 242
Percolation on Bethe Latticep. 243
Percolation and the Renormalization Groupp. 245
Aggregationp. 247
Cluster-Cluster Aggregationp. 249
The Witten-Sander Model of Diffusion-Limited Aggregationp. 249
Continuum Laplacian Modelp. 250
Viscous Fingering in the Hele-Shaw Cellp. 252
Flow in Thin Cellsp. 254
Instability of Interfacep. 254
Dislocations in Solids. Plastic Relaxationp. 261
Elasticity of Dislocationsp. 261
Linear Elasticity: A Summaryp. 261
Applied Stresses and Internal Stressesp. 264
Volterra Dislocationsp. 264
Definitionsp. 264
Elastic Observables Related to Volterra Defectsp. 266
Simple Topological Characteristics of Dislocationsp. 269
Equivalent Circuitsp. 269
Dislocations in Crystalsp. 270
Imperfect Dislocations. Stacking Faults and Twinsp. 272
Some Remarks on the Elastic Energy of a Dislocationp. 272
Stabilityp. 272
Image Forces; Peach and Kohler Forcesp. 273
Line Tensionp. 276
Frank and Read Mechanismp. 276
The Dislocation Corep. 278
Mobility of a Dislocationp. 279
Elementary Movements of a Dislocationp. 279
Glide and Peierls Stressp. 281
Point Defects and Climbp. 285
Vacancies and Interstitialsp. 286
Diffusion of Point Defects and Autodiffusionp. 287
Creepp. 291
Ensembles of Dislocationsp. 293
Frank Networkp. 293
Sub-Boundariesp. 294
Large Misorientations, Twin and Epitaxy Dislocations, Martensitic Transformationsp. 296
Dislocations in Smectic and Columnar Phasesp. 300
Static Dislocations in Smecticsp. 300
Edge Dislocationsp. 300
Screw Dislocationp. 308
Line Tension of a Screw Dislocationp. 313
Stresses in an SmA and Peach and Kohler Forcesp. 313
Dislocations in Columnar Phasesp. 315
Longitudinal Edge Dislocationsp. 315
Edge Transversal Dislocationsp. 316
Screw Dislocationsp. 318
Free Fluctuations of Longitudinal Dislocationsp. 320
Hydrodynamics of a Smectic Phasep. 321
Dynamic Modes in Smecticsp. 326
Movement of Isolated Dislocations in an SmA Phasep. 327
Edge Dislocationp. 327
Screw Dislocationp. 330
Collective Behavior of Dislocations and Instabilitiesp. 331
General Remarksp. 331
Collective Climb of Dislocations in SmAp. 332
Multiplication of Edge Dislocationsp. 333
Curvature Defects in Smectics and Columnar Phasesp. 337
Curvature in Solid Crystalsp. 338
Curvature in Liquid Crystals: Some General Remarksp. 339
Curvature in Smecticsp. 340
Historical Remarksp. 340
Congruences of Straight Normals and Focal Conic Domainsp. 341
Congruences of Normals, Variations of Perfect Focal Conic Domainsp. 343
Focal Conic Domainsp. 345
The Analytical Approach: Basic Formulaep. 345
Different Species of Focal Conic Domainsp. 347
Curvature Energy of FCDsp. 351
FCD-I: Negative Gaussian Curvaturep. 352
Toric FCD with Negative Gaussian Curvaturep. 354
Parabolic FCD with Negative Gaussian Curvaturep. 355
FCD-II: Positive Gaussian Curvaturep. 358
Curvature Defects in Columnar Phasesp. 359
General Considerationsp. 359
Developable Domainsp. 361
Classification of Developable Domainsp. 363
FCDs in Lyotropic Lamellar Phases: Oily Streaks and Spherulitesp. 365
Oily Streaksp. 365
Spherulitesp. 367
Grain Boundaries and Space Filling with FCDsp. 368
Focal Conic Domains of the First Speciesp. 369
Focal Conic Domains of the Second Speciesp. 377
Rheophysics of FCDsp. 378
Global Viscoelastic Behavior and Alignment Under Shearp. 379
Texturesp. 380
Disclinations and Topological Point Defects. Fluid Relaxationp. 388
Lines and Points in Uniaxial Nematics: Static Propertiesp. 389
Wedge Disclinations in Nematicsp. 389
Nonsingular Disclinationsp. 394
Twist Disclinationsp. 399
Defect Lines in LCPsp. 400
Singular Pointsp. 400
Confinement-Induced Twistsp. 402
Cholestericsp. 404
Elastic Theory at Different Scalesp. 405
Weak Twist Deformations: Double Twistp. 406
Disclinations [lambda, tau], and Xp. 408
Dislocationsp. 410
Other Effects of the Layer Structurep. 412
Beyond the Volterra Process: First Stepp. 414
Dislocations and Disclinations Densities in Relation with Disclinationsp. 414
Extension to Finite Dislocationsp. 418
Core Structure and Physical Propertiesp. 418
Dynamical Properties: General Features, Instabilitiesp. 419
General Featuresp. 420
Instabilities of Initially Defect-Free Samplesp. 421
Dynamics of Defectsp. 426
Isolated Disclination, Drag Forcep. 426
Interaction and Annihilation of Line and Point Defectsp. 427
Coarsening of Disclination Networksp. 430
Topological Theory of Defectsp. 434
Basic Concepts of the Topological Classificationp. 435
Topological Charges Illustrated with Mobius Stripsp. 435
DNA and Twisted Strips, a Digressionp. 436
Groups: Basic Definitionsp. 438
General Scheme of the Topological Classification of Defectsp. 439
Order Parameter Space. Groups That Describe Transformations of the Order Parameterp. 440
Homotopy Groupsp. 441
Point Defects in a Two-Dimensional Nematic Phasep. 444
Point Dislocations in a Two-Dimensional Crystalp. 447
The Fundamental Group of the Order Parameter Space. Linear Defectsp. 452
Unstable Disclinations in a Three-Dimensional Isotropic Ferromagnetp. 453
Stable Disclinations in a Three-Dimensional Uniaxial Nematic Phasep. 454
Disclinations in Biaxial Nematic and Cholesteric Phasesp. 455
The Second Homotopy Group of the Order Parameter Space and Point Defectsp. 459
Point Defects in a Three-Dimensional Ferromagnetp. 460
Topological Charges of Point Defectsp. 461
Point Defects in a Three-Dimensional Nematic Phasep. 463
Solitonsp. 464
Planar Solitonsp. 464
Linear Solitonsp. 466
Particlelike Solitonsp. 467
Surface Phenomenap. 472
Surface Phenomena in Isotropic Mediap. 472
Surface Tension and Thermodynamics of Flat Interfacesp. 472
Adsorptionp. 475
Curved Interfacesp. 479
Surface Tension and Nucleation of the New Phasep. 483
Wettingp. 485
Surface Phenomena in Anisotropic Mediap. 489
Equilibrium Shape (Wulff Shape) of Solid Crystalsp. 489
Surface Anchoring in Nematic Liquid Crystalsp. 493
Field Effects Under Finite Anchoringp. 496
Thin Liquid Crystal Films; Casimir Interactionsp. 500
Topological Defects in Large Liquid Crystal Dropletsp. 501
Smectic A Dropletsp. 510
Stability of Colloidal Systemsp. 519
Interactions Between Rigid Charged Surfacesp. 520
The Poisson-Boltzmann Equationp. 520
Fundamental Lengths in the Poisson-Boltzmann Problemp. 522
Free Energy and Maxwell Stress Tensorp. 524
Weak Electrolyte Solutionsp. 526
Strong Electrolyte Solutionsp. 528
The DLVO Theory: van der Waals versus Electrostatic Interactionsp. 530
Interactions in Lamellar Flexible Systemsp. 531
Elasticity of Neutral Membranesp. 533
Flexible Layers and Excluded Volumep. 540
The Lamellar, Sponge, and Cubic Phases; Microemulsionsp. 546
Solutions of Colloidal Particles; Stability Propertiesp. 547
Brownian Flocculationp. 549
Depletion Flocculationp. 550
Stability Under Shear; Rheological Propertiesp. 551
Order versus Disorderp. 553
Measurements of Interactions in Colloidal Systemsp. 555
Polymers: Structural Propertiesp. 560
Ideal and Flory Chainsp. 561
Single-chain Conformationsp. 563
The Ideal (or Gaussian) Chainp. 564
Pair Correlation Function and Radius of Gyrationp. 567
The Flory Chainp. 568
Chains in Interactionp. 572
The Mean Field Approachp. 573
Scaling Laws for Athermal Solutionsp. 577
Phase Separation in Polymer Solutions and Polymer Blendsp. 580
Liquid Equilibrium States versus Nonequilibrium Statesp. 580
First-Order Phase Transitions: An Overviewp. 582
Polymer Blendsp. 586
Microscopic Phase Separation into Block Copolymersp. 588
Rigid and Semiflexible Polymersp. 590
Rigid Rodsp. 590
Semiflexible Polymersp. 591
Chiralityp. 593
The Central Limit Theoremp. 593
Isothermal Compressibility and Density Fluctuations; Static Linear Responsep. 595
Table of Constantsp. 604
Name Indexp. 605
Subject Indexp. 617
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387952673
ISBN-10: 0387952675
Series: Statistics for Engineering and Information Science
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 637
Published: 1st October 2002
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.18 x 18.34  x 3.58
Weight (kg): 1.11

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