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Sociolinguistics in Japanese Contexts : Contributions to the Sociology of Language - Takesi Sibata

Sociolinguistics in Japanese Contexts

Contributions to the Sociology of Language

By: Takesi Sibata, Tetsuya Kunihiro (Editor), Daniel Long (Editor), Fumio Inoue (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1998
ISBN: 9783110149791
Number Of Pages: 505
For Ages: 22+ years old

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This text presents a collection of papers by Takesi Sibata, one of the leading linguists in Japan. The book provides an introduction to Japanese sociolinguistics, and shows how it has developed largely independently from the Western tradition.

Forewordp. 1
Dr. Takesi Sibata and the Principal Trends in Japanese Sociolinguisticsp. 5
Purpose of this chapterp. 7
The importance of Dr. Sibata in sociolinguisticsp. 7
The quantity of Dr. Sibata's contributionsp. 8
The quality of Dr. Sibata's contributionp. 8
Dr. Sibata's life history and sociolinguisticsp. 10
Romanizationp. 10
The "Literacy Survey"p. 10
Surveys of language standardizationp. 11
Survey of Honorificsp. 11
Linguistic Atlas of Japan and Linguistic Atlas of Itoigawap. 12
Dr. Sibata's surveys as a University Professorp. 13
Characteristics of Dr. Sibata's Researchp. 14
Inductive methodologyp. 14
Using the "scientific" methodp. 14
Exhaustivenessp. 14
Secular linguisticsp. 15
Originalityp. 15
The scholastic endeavorp. 16
The Study of Sociolinguistics
The Language Life of the Japanesep. 19
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 19
What is 'language life'?p. 19
The structure of life and linguistic behaviorp. 23
Situations in 'language life'p. 23
Time in the daily life of the Japanesep. 27
A day in the life of a womanp. 30
An example of a dayp. 30
Greetings and speech eventsp. 32
Communication which relies on speechp. 33
The typology and flow of communicationp. 33
Linguistic behavior and intentions of the senderp. 39
Situations of linguistic communicationp. 40
Special characteristics of the language life of the Japanesep. 46
The Survey of a Speech Community and its Methodologyp. 51
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Dialectology, linguistic geography, and the survey of speech communitiesp. 52
The procedure for studying a speech communityp. 54
One method of investigating a speech communityp. 55
Planning a surveyp. 55
Language as a scalep. 55
The object of investigationp. 59
Implementing a surveyp. 62
Analysis of the resultsp. 62
A 24 Hour Survey of the Language Life of the Japanesep. 65
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 65
The language life of the Japanese and the 24 hour surveyp. 65
The method of "the 24 hour survey"p. 66
Selection of informantsp. 66
Recordingp. 67
Fixing the date for the surveyp. 70
The use of investigatorsp. 70
The content of the recordingsp. 70
Aims of analysisp. 71
For future investigationp. 72
Individual Differences Among Investigators of Linguistic Geographyp. 73
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 73
Introductionp. 74
Individual differences between speakers and between interviewersp. 74
Simple individual differencesp. 76
Field methodsp. 76
Transcriptions of /h/p. 77
Geminate consonantsp. 79
Vowel lengthp. 80
Velar consonantsp. 81
Individual differences reflecting language historyp. 81
piiman 'green pepper'p. 81
ma-wata 'floss silk'p. 82
kinoko 'mushroom'p. 82
yuge 'steam'p. 83
kakashi 'scarecrow'p. 84
ama-dare-ochi 'rain drip spot'p. 84
ibiki 'snoring'p. 85
naka-yubi 'middle finger'p. 85
hito-sashi-yubi 'index finger'p. 86
Analysis of survey materials and analysis of individual differencesp. 86
Honorifics
Honorifics and Honorifics Researchp. 91
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 91
Special Treatmentp. 91
Diversity of treatment expressionsp. 95
Methods of "keeping distance"p. 96
The Honorific Prefix "O-" in Contemporary Japanesep. 99
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Lexical factors governing the use of o- --The 4830 word / 18 informant survey--p. 101
The problem: Words not usually prefixed by o-p. 101
Method of inquiryp. 102
The resultsp. 104
Conclusions on words with o-p. 109
Social factors governing the use of o- --The 49 word / 472 informant survey--p. 111
The problemp. 111
Informantsp. 113
Results: Social conditions governing the use of o-p. 115
Conclusions on users of o-p. 121
Words with which o- is frequently usedp. 123
Distribution of informants by district (cho)p. 124
Learning to Say "HAHA"p. 127
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 127
Introductionp. 128
An outline of the surveyp. 130
Results--(1) Usage and agep. 130
Results--(2) Differences between Uptown and Downtownp. 135
Results--(3) Differences between questionnaire and interview resultsp. 136
Results--(4) 'Okasan'p. 137
Conclusionsp. 137
Supplement 1: "Mother is well."p. 138
Supplement 2: Addendump. 140
The Language Life of Machino--The Social Psychology of Honorifics--p. 143
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Social stratification and honorific differentiation of kinship termsp. 144
Differentiation of kinship termsp. 144
Social stratification of Tanagaip. 145
What defines usage of address kinship termsp. 147
Honorific behavior in discourse and social conditionsp. 148
Interpersonal relationships in Tanagaip. 149
Honorific behavior in discoursep. 150
Determinants of honorific behavior in discoursep. 153
Conclusionp. 154
Materialsp. 154
Acknowledgmentsp. 155
Honorifics in a Communityp. 157
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 157
The local community, the family and the individualp. 157
Viewpoint of linguistic sociologyp. 158
Honorific system and honorific usagep. 159
The Kami-Tokikuni communityp. 162
Kinds of address termsp. 163
Analysis of address termsp. 166
Differentiation of usage of address terms by addressersp. 166
Differentiated usage of address terms by addressesp. 170
Differentiation of usage of self-reference terms by addressersp. 175
Differentiated usage of self-reference terms by addresseesp. 177
Conclusion: isolation and honorificsp. 179
Language Change
The Rise and Fall of Dialectsp. 183
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 183
Standard Language and the creation of the "National Language" in the Meiji erap. 183
The shift towards the Dialect Eradication Movementp. 191
The advent of the age of Common Language and the fate of dialectsp. 196
The Age Structure of the Speech Communityp. 207
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 207
Differentiation of linguistic behavior by the age of members of speech communitiesp. 207
Age structure revealed through surveys of language standardization and literacyp. 208
Age as one of the conditioning factors of linguistic behaviorp. 214
Is age structure present in every erap. 214
20 Years of the Itoigawa Dialectp. 217
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 217
Introductionp. 217
Aims of this comparisonp. 217
Data gatheringp. 217
Methods of comparisonp. 218
Results of analysis--(1) individual itemsp. 219
The case of 'forehead'p. 219
The case of 'pothanger (hook over a hearth)'p. 221
Results of analysis--(2) overall tendenciesp. 224
Addendump. 227
The Evolution of Common Language in Hokkaidop. 229
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 229
Hokkaido and the development of Common Languagep. 229
The Hokkaido surveyp. 231
From first generation to third generation--Bibaip. 232
Vocabularyp. 232
Phonologyp. 234
Grammarp. 235
Pitch accentp. 236
From first generation to third generation--Kutchanp. 238
Vocabularyp. 238
Phonologyp. 239
Grammarp. 239
Pitch accentp. 240
The development of Hokkaido Common Languagep. 241
Vocabularyp. 241
Phonologyp. 242
Grammarp. 242
Pitch accentp. 243
The language of third generation informantsp. 244
Ways that "commonization" progressesp. 247
Dialect Formation in a Settlementp. 249
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 249
The linguistic meaning of 'settlement'p. 250
The conditions at the beginning of settlementp. 250
The relationship between a settlement and other villagesp. 251
The Sakibaru dialectp. 251
The Mikyo Dialectp. 255
Changes in dialectsp. 258
Place Names as Evidence of Japanese Settlement in Ainu Areasp. 263
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 263
Introductionp. 263
Classification of Place Names in Hokkaidop. 265
Japanese place namesp. 265
Japanese place names of Ainu origin, or Japanized Ainu place namesp. 265
Ainu place namesp. 266
Indiscernible as either Japnese or Ainu place namesp. 266
Immigration and Rice Growing in Hokkaidop. 268
Conclusionp. 273
Sociolect and Idiolect
Group Languagep. 277
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 277
Properties of group languagep. 277
Argot, occupational language and slangp. 280
Argotp. 280
Occupational languagep. 280
Slangp. 281
Relationship of argot, occupational language and slangp. 281
Nicknames and terms of endearmentp. 282
The language bossp. 284
The formation of group languagep. 286
Use of foreign loanwordsp. 286
Changing the form of a wordp. 287
Changing the meaning of a wordp. 287
Contributions to language changep. 288
Language in the familyp. 289
Language in groups at a schoolp. 292
Types of namingp. 292
Terms of endearment in a state of fluxp. 294
Student languagep. 295
Occupational language in the workplacep. 297
Broadcast stationsp. 297
Department storesp. 298
Group Language and its Emergencep. 301
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 301
Three kinds of group languagep. 301
Argot in department storesp. 301
Occupational language in a broadcasting stationp. 302
Student slangp. 302
Creation of group languagep. 303
Group consciousnessp. 304
A group of statisticiansp. 304
A group of new pupilsp. 304
Argot and slang: differences and similaritiesp. 305
The dialectization of slangp. 305
Group conditions as manifested in slang and argotp. 306
Group language deriving from a so-called language bossp. 306
The existence of a so-called language bossp. 306
The effect of a language bossp. 306
Conclusionp. 307
Fad Words and Language Bossesp. 309
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 309
Fad words in fashionp. 309
Large differences in fad words among groupsp. 311
Downtown, Uptown and Suburbsp. 313
Intentional fad wordsp. 315
Favorable environments for language bossesp. 317
Conclusionp. 318
Urbanization and Language Differences in Social Classesp. 321
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 321
Gentry and commoners in Miyakop. 321
Language differences between gentry and commonersp. 323
Gentry and commoners in Hirara and Karimatap. 324
Unexpectedly small language differences between gentry and commonersp. 325
Class differences for both Hirara city and Karimata villagep. 326
Class differences for Karimata villagep. 328
Class differences for Hirara cityp. 329
Decreasing linguistic differences due to commoners' assimilation into the gentryp. 331
Reference and address terms for 'father'p. 331
Reference and address terms for 'mother'p. 332
tanka-yoz 'birthday celebration'p. 332
Urbanization as a factor in changep. 332
Changes in Life and Changes in Language--Stabilization of New Expressionsp. 335
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 335
A variety of expressionsp. 335
Words relating to electric machinesp. 337
Verbs used with electric machinesp. 337
Verbs of switching onp. 338
Etymology of verbs of switching onp. 340
Verbs for turning offp. 342
The relationship between concept and wordp. 343
Changes in life and changes in languagep. 347
The Microtoponymy of A Limited Area Considered as Part of the Vocabulary of an Idiolectp. 351
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 351
Introductionp. 351
The nature of micro-place namesp. 352
A description of the area investigatedp. 355
Method of inquiryp. 357
Results and analysisp. 358
Characteristics of the active vocabulary of place namesp. 358
The passive vocabulary of place namesp. 363
Individual differences with respect to the word forms and the locations of place namesp. 364
A general tendency with regard to two special place names in Tanagaip. 366
Japanese place names within an idiolectp. 366
Summaryp. 367
Norms of Language
Consciousness of Language Normsp. 371
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 371
Paying attention to languagep. 371
The need for normsp. 373
Two kinds of normp. 374
When rules are necessaryp. 375
Conditions for becoming a rulep. 375
Norms and stylep. 376
Standards of Pronunciationp. 379
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 379
Standards of language and standards of pronunciationp. 379
Locating the problemp. 382
Correct pronunciationp. 383
Standards of phonological structurep. 385
Desirable ways of speaking and listeningp. 386
Variant word formsp. 387
Discriminatory Words and Linguistic Taboosp. 391
Introductory notes by the editorsp. 391
Taboos attached to wordsp. 391
Changes in discriminatory wordsp. 391
Discriminatory words in compoundsp. 392
Reality without wordsp. 393
Towards a revolution in people's consciousnessp. 393
Notesp. 395
Referencesp. 407
Complete Works of Takesi Sibatap. 415
Sources of Original Publicationsp. 473
Indexp. 479
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783110149791
ISBN-10: 3110149796
Series: Contributions to the Sociology of Language
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 505
Published: 1998
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.87
Weight (kg): 0.89