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Simulation of Industrial Processes for Control Engineers - Philip J. Thomas

Simulation of Industrial Processes for Control Engineers


Published: 11th August 1999
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Computer simulation is the key to comprehending and controlling the full-scale industrial plant used in the chemical, oil, gas and electrical power industries. Simulation of Industrial Processes for Control Engineers shows how to use the laws of physics and chemistry to produce the equations to simulate dynamically all the most important unit operations found in process and power plant.

The book explains how to model chemical reactors, nuclear reactors, distillation columns, boilers, deaerators, refrigeration vessels, storage vessels for liquids and gases, liquid and gas flow through pipes and pipe networks, liquid and gas flow through installed control valves, control valve dynamics (including nonlinear effects such as static friction), oil and gas pipelines, heat exchangers, steam and gas turbines, compressors and pumps, as well as process controllers (including three methods of integral desaturation). The phenomenon of markedly different time responses ("stiffness") is considered and various ways are presented to get around the potential problem of slow execution time. The book demonstrates how linearization may be used to give a diverse check on the correctness of the as-programmed model and explains how formal techniques of model validation may be used to produce a quantitative check on the simulation model's overall validity.
The material is based on many years' experience of modelling and simulation in the chemical and power industries, supplemented in recent years by university teaching at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. Several important new results are presented. The depth is sufficient to allow real industrial problems to be solved, thus making the book attractive to engineers working in industry. But the book's step-by-step approach makes the text appropriate also for post-graduate students of control engineering and for undergraduate students in electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering who are studying process control in their second year or later.

"With his book, Professor Thomas has provided a major contribution to the modelling of major unit processes which are found in the chemical, oil-and -gas and power generation industries....the book represents a major achievement and can be strongly recommended." IMechE - Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. October 2001

'..highly recommended to anyone involved in mathematical simulation for any purpose..' Nuclear Energy, October 2000.

"Professor Thomas has produced a much-needed work in the field of modeling and simulation of industrial systems...It is most apparent that a practitioner with many years of experience has written this book....a most valuable addition to any technical library..It is a useful reference not just for control engineers but for mechanical and chemical engineers as well." - Intech (ISA Journal) , August 2000

"Engineers simulating industrial processes commonly found in the chemical, nuclear and oil industries will find this book essential to their work....this book will be of considerable importance to all engineers interested in the mathematical modelling and simulation of industrial processes. The book is clearly the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatise currently available on this important topic." IEE Computing & Control Engineering Journal, April 2000.

"This is a significant book for those serious about learning how to produce good dynamic simulations of process plant...it shows how to use good science to derive models of the appropriate complexity to suit the particular problem....It is recommended both for those wishing to learn about the subject, and for the experienced who need to find out how to model a particular piece of equipment." Measurement and Control, Nov. 1999

"Professor Thomas and his publishers are to be congratulated for producing such a useful resource text." The Nuclear Engineer, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2000

"This book should be of great interest to those addressed in the title...It is difficult to think of a comparable source of explanation and information in this field." Dr Alex Thompson, HMS Sultan

"it is rare to find a modern engineering textbook which combines theory and practice to such a useful effect. Professor Thomas is to be congratulated on providing such an outstanding work." Dr Andrew Eadie, Glasgow Caledonian University.

Forewordp. xv
Notationp. vxii
Introductionp. 1
Fundamental concepts of dynamic simulationp. 5
Introductionp. 5
Building up a model of a simple process-plant unit: tank liquid levelp. 5
The general form of the simulation problemp. 7
The state vectorp. 8
Model complexityp. 9
Distributed systems: partial differential equationsp. 10
The problem of stiffnessp. 12
Tackling stiffness in process simulations: the properties of a stiff integration algorithmp. 15
Tackling stiffness in process simulations by modifications to the modelp. 16
Solving nonlinear simultaneous equations in a process model: iterative methodp. 17
Solving nonlinear simultaneous equations in a process model: the Method of Referred Derivativesp. 18
Bibliographyp. 20
Thermodynamics and the conservation equationsp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Thermodynamic variablesp. 21
Specific heats of gasesp. 22
Conservation of mass in a bounded volumep. 23
Conservation of energy in a fixed volumep. 24
Effect of volume change on the equation for the conservation of energyp. 26
Conservation of energy equation for a rotating componentp. 26
Conservation of mass in a pipep. 27
Conservation of energy in a pipep. 28
Conservation of momentum in a pipep. 30
Bibliographyp. 31
Steady-state incompressible flowp. 32
Introductionp. 32
The energy equation for general steady-state flowp. 32
Incompressible flowp. 33
Magnitude of the Fanning friction factor, fp. 34
Frictionally resisted, incompressible flow through a real pipep. 35
Pressure drop due to level differencep. 36
Frictional pressure dropp. 36
Pressure drop due to bends and fittingsp. 37
Pressure drop at pipe outletp. 37
Pressure drop at pipe inletp. 39
Overall relationship between mass flow and pressure differencep. 40
Bibliographyp. 40
Flow through ideal nozzlesp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Steady-state flow in a nozzlep. 41
Maximum mass flow for a polytropic expansionp. 45
Sonic flowp. 45
Comparison between flow formulaep. 47
Bibliographyp. 49
Steady-state compressible flowp. 50
Introductionp. 50
General overview of compressible pipe-flowp. 50
Frictionally resisted, adiabatic flow inside the pipep. 51
Solution sequence for compressible flow through a pipep. 55
Determination of the friction factor, fp. 56
Determination of the effective length of the pipep. 56
Sample calculationp. 56
Explicit calculation of compressible flowp. 57
Example using the long-pipe approximationp. 58
Bibliographyp. 59
Control valve liquid flowp. 60
Introductionp. 60
Types of control valvep. 60
Pressure distribution through the valvep. 61
Liquid flow through the valvep. 62
Cavitation and choking in liquid flowp. 63
Relationship between valve capacity at part open and capacity at full openp. 64
The valve characteristicp. 64
Velocity-head loss across the valuep. 65
Bibliographyp. 67
Liquid flow through the installed control valvep. 68
Introductionp. 68
Liquid flow through an installed valvep. 68
Choking during liquid flowp. 69
Cavitation during liquid flowp. 70
Example: calculation of liquid flowp. 70
Control valve gas flowp. 74
Introductionp. 74
Representing the first section of the control valve as a nozzlep. 74
The relationship between throat ratio and the valve pressure ratio at high valve pressure ratios, p2/p1p. 76
Deriving a value for throat area, A[subscript t] from the limiting gas conductance, C[subscript g]p. 77
Correlation of the friction coefficient at high-pressure ratios with the cavitation coefficientp. 77
The relationship between throat and valve pressure ratios when the valuve pressure ratio is lowp. 78
Relating throat and exit pressure ratios throughout the pressure ratio rangep. 80
Flow at partial valve openingsp. 81
Summary of the nozzle-based model for gas flow through the control valvep. 82
Worked example using the nozzle-based calculational modelp. 83
Other models for gas flowp. 85
Bibliographyp. 88
Gas flow through the installed control valvep. 90
Introductionp. 90
Gas flow through an installed valve - Velocity-Head Implicit Method (VHIM)p. 90
Gas flow through an installed valve - Smoothed Velocity-Head Implicit Method (SVHIM)p. 94
Gas flow through an installed valve - Average Specific Volume Approximation Method (ASVAM)p. 97
Example: calculation of gas flowp. 98
Discussionp. 106
Accumulation of liquids and gases in process vesselsp. 108
Introductionp. 108
Accumulation of liquid in an open vessel at constant temperaturep. 108
Accumulation of gas in a vessel at constant temperaturep. 108
Use of kilogram-moles in modelling the accumulation of a mixture of gasesp. 110
Gas accumulation with heat exchangep. 112
Liquid and gas accumulation with heat exchangep. 114
Two-phase systems: boiling, condensing and distillationp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Description of single component boiling/condensing: boiling modelp. 117
Functions used in the modelling of vapour--liquid equilibriump. 120
Application of the boiling model to a steam drum and recirculation loopp. 120
Continuous distillation in a distillation columnp. 122
Mathematical model of the distillation platep. 123
Functions used in the modelling of the distillation platep. 130
Modelling the distillation column as a wholep. 132
Bibliographyp. 134
Chemical reactionsp. 135
Introductionp. 135
The reaction at the molecular and kilogram-mole levelsp. 135
Reaction rate relationship for the different chemical species in the reactionp. 136
Reaction ratesp. 137
Generalization for multiple reactionsp. 137
Conservation of mass in a bounded volumep. 138
Conservation of energy in a fixed volumep. 139
The internal energy of reaction and the enthalpy of reactionp. 140
The effect of temperature on [Delta]U and [Delta]Hp. 142
Continuous reaction in a gas reactorp. 143
Modelling a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)p. 146
Bibliographyp. 151
Turbine nozzlesp. 152
Introductionp. 152
Velocity and enthalpy relationships in a turbine nozzle: nozzle efficiencyp. 152
Dependence of the polytropic exponent on nozzle efficiencyp. 153
Effect of nozzle efficiency on nozzle velocityp. 155
Using the concept of stagnation to account for non-neglible inlet velocitiesp. 156
Sonic flowp. 157
The convergent-only nozzlep. 158
The convergent--divergent nozzlep. 161
Bibliographyp. 171
Steam and gas turbinesp. 172
Introductionp. 172
The turbine stagep. 172
Stage efficiency and the stage polytropic exponentp. 173
Reactionp. 174
Mid-stage pressure; nozzle discharge velocity; stage mass flowp. 176
Design conditions in an impulse bladep. 176
Off-design conditions in an impulse stage: blade efficiency and stage outlet velocity in the absence of blade and nozzle inlet lossp. 178
Loss ofkinetic energy caused by off-design angles of approach to moving and fixed bladesp. 179
Off-design conditions in an impulse blade: typical corrections for kinetic energy lossesp. 181
50% reaction stage: the design of the fixed blades (nozzles) and the moving bladesp. 181
Blade efficiency at design conditions for a 50% reaction stagep. 183
Blade efficiency at off-design conditions for a 50% reaction stagep. 185
The polytropic exponent for saturated steamp. 187
Calculation sequence for turbine simulationp. 187
Bibliographyp. 189
Steam and gas turbines: simplified modelp. 190
Introductionp. 190
The effect of neglecting interstage velocities in modelling a real turbine stage: the approximate equivalence of kinetic energy and enthalpy at nozzle inletp. 190
Stage efficiency for an impulse stagep. 191
Stage efficiency for a reaction stagep. 192
Evaluation of downstream enthalpies following isentropic and frictionally resisted expansionsp. 193
Analytic functions linking entropy and enthalpy for saturated and superheated steamp. 196
Specific volume at stage outletp. 199
Simplifying the calculation of mass flowp. 199
Calculation sequence for the simplified turbine modelp. 201
Bibliographyp. 203
Turbo pumps and compressorsp. 204
Introductionp. 204
Applying dimensional analysis to centrifugal and axial pumpsp. 204
Pump characteristic curvesp. 207
Pump dynamicsp. 209
Calculating the flow pumped through a pipep. 210
Rotary compressorsp. 211
Compressor characteristics based on polytropic headp. 212
Compressor characteristics based on pressure ratiop. 216
Computing the performance of the complete compressorp. 218
Bibliographyp. 220
Flow networksp. 221
Introductionp. 221
Simple parallel networksp. 221
Simple series networkp. 222
Complex networksp. 223
Strategy for solving flow networks using iterative methodsp. 224
Modifying the flow equations to speed up the Newton--Raphson methodp. 225
Solving the steady-state flow network using the Method of Referred Derivativesp. 229
Worked example using the Method of Referred Derivatives: liquid flow networkp. 230
Avoiding problems at flow reversal with the Method of Referred Derivativesp. 235
Liquid networks containing nodes with significant volume: allowing for temperature changesp. 236
Bibliographyp. 238
Pipeline dynamicsp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Dynamic equations for a pipeline: the full equationsp. 239
Development of the equation for conservation of massp. 239
Development of the equation for conservation of momentump. 240
Applying the Method of Characteristics to pipeline dynamicsp. 240
Interfacing the Method-of-Characteristics pipeline model to the rest of process simulation: boundary conditionsp. 243
Correcting the speed of sound for the elasticity of the pipe materialp. 250
Example of pipeline flow using the Method of Characteristicsp. 251
Finite differencesp. 254
Bibliographyp. 255
Distributed components: heat exchangers and tubular reactorsp. 256
Introductionp. 256
General arrangement of a shell-and-tube heat exchangerp. 256
Equations for flow in a duct subject to heat exchangep. 257
Equation for liquid flow in a duct subject to heat exchangep. 258
Equation for gas flow in a duct subject to heat exchangep. 258
Application of the duct equations to the tube-side fluidp. 259
Application of the duct equations to the shell-side fluidp. 259
Equations for the tube wall and the shell wallp. 260
Solving the heat exchanger equations using spatial finite differencesp. 261
The tubular reactorp. 262
Mass balance for the gas flowing through the catalyst bedp. 263
Energy balance for the gas flowing through the catalyst bedp. 263
Solving the temperature and conversion equations using finite differencesp. 266
Bibliographyp. 267
Nuclear reactorsp. 268
Introductionp. 268
General description of a nuclear reactorp. 268
The process of nuclear fissionp. 269
Delayed neutronsp. 270
Reactor multiplication factor, kp. 271
Absorption of neutrons and the production of prompt neutronsp. 272
Overall neutron balancep. 273
The balance for delayed neutron precursorsp. 273
Summary of neutron kinetics equations; reactor powerp. 274
Values of delayed neutron parameters and the problem of stiffnessp. 274
Relationship between neutron density, neutron flux and thermal powerp. 275
Spatial variations in neutron flux and power: centre-line and average reactor fluxp. 276
Flux and power in axial segments of the reactor corep. 277
Calculating the temperature of the fuel in each of the axial segmentsp. 279
Calculating the coolant temperaturep. 280
Calculating the reactivityp. 280
Bibliographyp. 281
Process controllers and control valve dynamicsp. 282
Introductionp. 282
The proportional controllerp. 282
The basic operation of the proportional plus integral controllerp. 283
The proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) controllerp. 284
Integral desaturationp. 285
The dynamics of control valve travelp. 289
Modelling static friction: the velocity deadband methodp. 290
Using nonlinearity blocks: the backlash description of value static frictionp. 291
Bibliographyp. 295
Linearizationp. 296
Introductionp. 296
Principles of linearizationp. 296
Example of analytic linearization: the response of liquid flow to valve opening in a pumped liquid systemp. 297
Response of flow to value opening when the differential pressure controller is switched outp. 298
Including the effect of the differential pressure controllerp. 301
Using the linear block diagramp. 307
Bibliographyp. 307
Model validationp. 308
Introductionp. 308
The philosophy of model validationp. 308
The concept of Model Distortionp. 309
Transfer-function-based technique for model distortionp. 311
Time-domain technique for the solution of the model distortion equationsp. 317
Applicationsp. 322
Bibliographyp. 322
Comparative size of energy termsp. 323
Introductionp. 323
Bulk kinetic energyp. 323
The relative size of the potential energy termp. 323
Vessel filled with liquid or gasp. 324
Liquid partially filling a vesselp. 324
Gas partially filling a vessel, contained above a movable surface, e.g. a liquid surface, undergoing a near-adiabatic expansion or compressionp. 325
Explicit calculation of compressible flow using approximating functionsp. 328
Introductionp. 328
Applying dimensional analysis to compressible flowp. 328
The shape of the dimensionless flow function, f[subscript pipe]p. 328
Developing a long-pipe approximation to the full compressible flow equationsp. 333
Calculation of b[subscript 0]p. 336
Using polynomial functions to characterize the b[subscript 0] surfacep. 336
Size of errors using approximating functionsp. 337
Simplified approximation using a constant value of b[subscript 0]p. 338
Bibliographyp. 340
Equations for control valve flow in SI unitsp. 341
Introductionp. 341
Liquid flow through the valvep. 341
Gas flow at small pressure drops in US unitsp. 341
Gas flow at very large pressure dropsp. 342
Gas flow at intermediate pressure drops: the Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation (FUGSE)p. 342
Converting the Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation to SI unitsp. 343
Summary of conversions between SI and US value coefficientsp. 343
Comparison of Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation, FUGSE, with the nozzle-based model for control valve gas flowp. 344
Introductionp. 344
Comparison of the Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation, FUGSE, with direct datap. 344
Comparison of the FUGSE with the nozzle-based model for control valve gas flowp. 345
Measurement of the internal energy of reaction and the enthalpy of reaction using calorimetersp. 348
Introductionp. 348
Measuring the internal energy of reaction using the bomb calorimeterp. 348
Measuring the enthalpy of reaction using an open-system calorimeterp. 349
Comparison of efficiency formulae with experimental data for convergent-only and convergent-divergent nozzlesp. 351
Experimental resultsp. 351
Theory versus experiment for the convergent-only nozzlep. 353
Divergence ratio for the convergent-divergent nozzlesp. 355
Interpreting the experimental results for convergent-divergent nozzlesp. 357
Comparing calculated efficiency curves with measured efficiency curvesp. 359
Conclusionsp. 362
Referencep. 362
Approximations used in modelling turbine reaction stages in off-design conditionsp. 363
Axial velocity over the fixed blades at off-design conditions for a 50% reaction stagep. 363
Degree of reaction at off-design conditions for a 50% reaction stagep. 365
Fuel pin average temperature and effective heat transfer coefficientp. 369
Introductionp. 369
Applying Fourier's law of heat conduction to the fuelp. 369
Heat transfer across the gas gapp. 371
Heat transfer through the claddingp. 371
Heat transfer from the cladding to the coolantp. 371
The overall heat transfer coefficientp. 371
Example of calculating average fuel temperatures in a PWRp. 372
Bibliographyp. 373
Conditions for emergence from saturation for P + I controllers with integral desaturationp. 374
Introductionp. 374
Type 1 integral desaturationp. 374
Type 2 integral desaturationp. 375
Type 3 integral desaturationp. 377
Indexp. 379
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780750641616
ISBN-10: 0750641614
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 390
Published: 11th August 1999
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.2 x 19.5  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.75