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Shop Reference for Students & Apprentices - Edward G. Hoffman

Shop Reference for Students & Apprentices

Paperback Published: 8th January 2001
ISBN: 9780831130794
Number Of Pages: 560

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Discusses those aspects of applied mathematics needed on the job and covers the proper use of measuring instruments and methods. Outlines the standard methods of presentation and the conventions used in preparing engineering drawings. Offers detailed information on inch and metric standard tolerances, allowances, limits and fits, preferred numbers and sizes, as well as in-depth descriptions of the sizes, forms, dimensions of standard machine elements commonly encountered in and around the shop. Provides machining methods and materials selection, recommended speeds and feeds for various kinds of machining operations on different materials, and the types and compositions of metals commonly used in machine construction. Includes an extensive index that will enable the user to quickly and conveniently find the information and data that he or she requires.

Conversion Factors
Metric Conversion Factorsp. 1
Greek Letters and Standard Abbreviationsp. 7
Decimal Equivalents of Fractions of an Inchp. 7
Use of Conversion Tablesp. 9
Fractional Inch to Millimeterp. 10
Decimals of an Inch to Millimetersp. 11
Millimeters to Inchesp. 13
Microinches to Micrometersp. 15
Micrometers to Microinchesp. 16
Thermal Energy or Heatp. 17
Thermometer Scalesp. 17
Absolute Temperature and Absolute Zerop. 17
Thermal Energyp. 17
Fahrenheit-Celsius Conversionp. 17
Mathematical Signs and Commonly Used Abbreviationsp. 20
Arithmeticp. 21
Common Fractionsp. 21
Adding Fractions and Mixed Numbersp. 22
Subtracting Fractions and Mixed Numbersp. 22
Multiplying Fraction and Mixed Numbersp. 23
Dividing Fractions and Mixed Numbersp. 23
Decimal Fractionsp. 24
Converting Common Fractions To Decimal Fractionsp. 25
Principal Algebraic Expressions and Formulasp. 27
Solving First Degree Equationsp. 27
Solving Quadratic Equationsp. 28
Cubic Equationsp. 28
Rearrangement and Transposition Formulasp. 29
Complex or Imaginary Numbersp. 30
Operations on Complex Numbersp. 31
Imaginary Quantitiesp. 32
Squares and Cubes of Numbersp. 33
Fractions of Pip. 39
Weights and Volumesp. 40
Circumferences and Areas of Circlesp. 41
Lengths of Chords for Spacing Off the Circumferences of Circlesp. 53
Hole Coordinate Dimension Factorsp. 54
Spacing Off the Circumferences of Circlesp. 55
Diameters of Circles and Sides of Squares of Equal Areap. 69
Distance Across Corners of Squares and Hexagonsp. 70
Formulas for Regular Polygonsp. 71
Areas and Dimensions of Figuresp. 72
Segments of Circlesp. 78
Volumes of Solidsp. 80
Ratio and Proportionp. 86
Inverse Proportionp. 87
Powers, Roots, and Reciprocalsp. 88
Powers of Ten Notationp. 88
Solution of Trianglesp. 101
Trigonometric Relationships of Right Triangle Partsp. 102
Angular/Linear Relationshipsp. 102
Trigonometric Functionsp. 103
Solution of Trianglesp. 105
Degree to Radian Conversion Tablep. 110
Trigonometric Functionsp. 112
Laws of Sines and Cosinesp. 113
Trigonometric Identitiesp. 113
Versed Sine and Versed Cosinep. 118
Sevolute and Involute Functionsp. 118
Involute Functions Tablep. 119
Compound Anglesp. 123
Formulas for Compound Anglesp. 123
Engineering Drawings
Fundamental Rulesp. 126
Units of Measurementp. 127
Types of Dimensioningp. 127
Application of Dimensionsp. 128
Dimensioning Featuresp. 133
Direct Tolerancing Methodsp. 145
Tolerance Expressionp. 146
Interpretation of Limitsp. 147
Single Limitsp. 147
Tolerance Accumulationp. 147
Geometric Tolerance Symbolsp. 156
Feature Control Frame Placementp. 159
Definition of Tolerance Zonep. 160
Tabulated Tolerancesp. 160
Drafting Practicesp. 161
Sizes of Drawing Sheetsp. 161
Control and Production of Surface Texturep. 161
Symbols for Section Liningp. 163
Sampling Lengthsp. 167
Roughness Parametersp. 168
Waviness Parametersp. 168
Surface Roughness to Tolerancesp. 169
Roughness Measurementsp. 170
Surface Texture Symbolsp. 172
Roughness Average Valuesp. 174
Lay Symbolsp. 174
Surface Texture of Castingsp. 177
Metric Dimensions on Drawingsp. 177
Checking Drawingsp. 177
Measuring Instrumentsp. 180
Steel Rulesp. 180
Micrometersp. 182
Verniersp. 185
Dial Calipersp. 187
Protractorsp. 187
Sine-barp. 189
Tables for Sine-bar Constantsp. 191
Measuring Tapersp. 198
Measuring Dovetail Slidesp. 198
Angles and Tapersp. 199
Tapers per Footp. 200
Figuring Tapersp. 201
Simplified Taper Calculationsp. 201
Measurement over Pinsp. 204
Allowances and Tolerances for Fits
Limits and Fitsp. 205
Basic Dimensionsp. 205
Tolerancesp. 205
Preferred Basic Sizesp. 208
ANSI Standard Fitsp. 211
Running and Sliding Fitsp. 214
Clearance Locational Fitsp. 216
Transition Locational Fitsp. 218
Modified Standard Fitsp. 222
Tolerances Designationp. 223
Preferred Metric Sizesp. 225
Preferred Fitsp. 225
Hole Basis Metric Clearance Fitsp. 228
Hole Basis Metric Transition and Interference Fitsp. 230
Shaft Basis Metric Clearance Fitsp. 232
Shaft Basis Metric Transition and Interference Fitsp. 234
Gagemakers Tolerancesp. 236
ANSI Straight Pinsp. 238
ANSI Taper Pinsp. 238
Drilling Specificationsp. 239
Selection of Number and Sizes of Drillsp. 241
ANSI Grooved Pinsp. 242
Standard Tapers
Morse Taperp. 245
Brown and Sharpe Taperp. 245
Jarno Taperp. 245
Morse Stub Taper Shanksp. 246
Morse Taper Sleevesp. 248
Brown and Sharpe Taper Shankp. 249
Jarno Taper Shanksp. 250
Machine Tool Spindlesp. 250
Tapers for Machine Tool Spindlesp. 250
Keys and Keyseats
Key Size Versus Shaft Diameterp. 253
Depths for Milling Keyseatsp. 256
Cottersp. 256
Plain and Gib Head Keysp. 257
Fits for Parallel and Taper Keysp. 258
Key Chamferp. 259
Keyseat Tolerances for Electric Motorp. 259
Set Screws for Use Over Keysp. 259
Woodruff Keys and Keyseatsp. 259
Keyseat Dimensions for Woodruff Keysp. 262
Depth of Keyseatp. 264
Preferred Lengths of Keysp. 265
Screw Thread Systems
Screw Thread Formsp. 266
Parts of a Screw Threadp. 266
Thread Designationsp. 267
Cutting Screw Threadsp. 269
Tap Drill Sizes and Percentage of Threadp. 271
Threading Formulasp. 278
Internal Metric Threadp. 278
External Metric Threadp. 280
Standard Series Selected Combinationsp. 283
Measuring Screw Threadsp. 307
Pitch and Lead of Screw Threadsp. 307
Thread Micrometersp. 307
Ball-point Micrometersp. 308
Three-wire Methodp. 308
Classes of Formulasp. 309
Screw Thread Profilesp. 309
Checking Pitch Diametersp. 309
Wire Sizesp. 310
Diameters of Wiresp. 310
Measuring Wire Accuracyp. 311
Measuring or Contact Pressurep. 311
Formulas for Checking Pitch Diametersp. 312
Common Hardware
Fastener Grade Marksp. 313
Grade Identification Marks and Mechanical Properties of Bolts and Screwsp. 313
Hexagon and Spline Socketp. 314
Drill and Counterbore Sizep. 315
Hexagon and Spline Keys and Bitsp. 316
Socket Head Cap Screwsp. 317
Drill and Counterbore Sizesp. 320
Hardened Ground Machine Dowel Pinsp. 321
Gears and Gearing
Gearsp. 322
Definitions of Gear Termsp. 323
Sizes and Shape of Gear Teethp. 327
Nomenclature of Gear Teethp. 327
Properties of the Involute Curvep. 328
Diametral and Circular Pitch Systemsp. 329
Caliper Measurement of Gear Toothp. 329
Involute Gear Milling Cutterp. 330
Chordal Thickness and Chordal Addenda of Milled and Gear Milling Cutterp. 331
Finishing Gear Milling Cuttersp. 332
Module System Gear Designp. 333
German Standard Tooth Formp. 333
Rules for Module System of Gearingp. 334
Tooth Dimensions Based Upon Module Systemp. 335
Equivalent Diametral Pitches, Circular Pitchesp. 336
Spur Gear Calculations Formulap. 337
Helical Gear Calculations Formulap. 338
Bevel Gear Calculations Formulap. 340
Milling Bevel Gearsp. 342
Milling Machine Indexingp. 346
Simple Indexingp. 346
Indexing Movements for Standard Index Platep. 347
Angular Indexingp. 348
B and S Index Platesp. 350
Cutting Speeds and Feeds
Work Materialsp. 351
Cutting Speed, Feed, Depth of Cut, Tool Wear, and Tool Lifep. 354
Selecting Cutting Conditionsp. 354
Principal Feeds and Speeds Tablesp. 355
Cutting Speed Formulasp. 355
Adjustment Factors for Turning with HSS Toolsp. 357
Cutting Speed for Tappingp. 357
Cutting Speed for Broachingp. 358
Cutting Speed for Thread Chasingp. 359
Feed Rate for Millingp. 360
Feed Rates for Drillingp. 361
Cutting Speeds for Plain Carbon and Alloy Steelsp. 363
Cutting Speeds for Ferrous Cast Metalsp. 365
Cutting Speeds for Stainless Steelsp. 366
Cutting Speeds for Tool Steelsp. 367
Cutting Speeds for Light Metalsp. 368
Cutting Speeds for Titanium Alloysp. 368
Cutting Speeds for Superalloysp. 369
Feeds for Milling with HSS Cuttersp. 370
RPM for Various Cutting Speeds and Diametersp. 375
Tapping and Threadingp. 379
Speeds for Metal-cutting Sawsp. 380
Speeds for Turning Unusual Materialsp. 381
Cutting Tools
Tool Contourp. 382
Terms and Definitionsp. 382
Relief Anglesp. 386
Rake Anglesp. 386
Nose Radiusp. 388
Chipbreakersp. 388
Planing Toolsp. 389
Indexable Insertsp. 389
Insert Identification Systemp. 390
Indexable Insert Tool Holdersp. 392
Standard Shank Sizesp. 392
Indexable Insert Holdersp. 394
Single-Point Turning and Boring Toolsp. 398
Arbor-Mounted Side and Slot Millsp. 401
High-Speed-Steel Peripheral and Slotting End Millsp. 404
High-Speed-Steel Twist Drill Toolp. 406
Length of Point on Twist Drillsp. 409
Tool Troubleshootingp. 410
Machining Methodsp. 412
Tool Wear
Sharpening Twist Drillsp. 413
Relief Grinding of the Tool Flanksp. 413
Drill Point Thinningp. 414
Sharpening Carbide Toolsp. 414
Silicon Carbide Wheelsp. 415
Diamond Wheelsp. 415
Peripheral Versus Flat Side Grindingp. 417
Lapping Carbide Toolsp. 417
Chip Breaker Grindingp. 417
Summary of Miscellaneous Pointsp. 418
Cutting Fluids for Machining
Types of Cutting and Grinding Fluidsp. 419
Cutting Oilsp. 419
Water-Miscible Fluidsp. 420
Cutting Fluids for Different Materials and Operationsp. 420
Cutting Fluids for Turning, Milling, Drilling and Tappingp. 421
Cutting Fluids for Machining Operationsp. 422
Application of Cutting Fluids to Carbidesp. 423
Cutting Fluids for Machining Magnesiump. 424
Coolants for Carbide Tool Grindingp. 424
Machining Nonferrous Metals
Machining Magnesiump. 425
Machining Aluminump. 426
Machining Plasticsp. 427
Machining Non-metallic Gear Blanksp. 429
Zinc Alloy Die-Castingsp. 430
Monel and Nickel Alloysp. 430
High Strength, Low Alloy Steelp. 431
Carbon Steelsp. 433
Free Cutting Steelsp. 435
Carburizing of Steelsp. 435
Chromium Nickel Austenitic Steelsp. 438
Stainless Chromium Irons and Steelsp. 439
Unified Numbering Systemp. 442
Standard Steel Numbering Systemp. 444
Classification of Tool Steelsp. 445
Quick Reference Guide for Tool Steel Selectionp. 446
Molybdenum High-Speed Steelsp. 447
Tungsten High-Speed Tool Steelsp. 449
Hot-Work Tool Steelsp. 450
Cold-Work Tool Steelsp. 451
Shock-Resisting, Mold, and Special-Purpose Tool Steelsp. 452
Classification, Compositions, and Properties of Tool and Die Steelsp. 453
Heat Treatments for SAE Carbon Steelsp. 455
SAE Alloy Steelsp. 456
Composition and Physical Properties of Bronzesp. 460
Wrought Copper and Copper Alloysp. 461
Aluminum Bronze Rods, Bars, and Shapesp. 461
Hardness and Ultimate Strength of Brassp. 462
Copper-Silicon and Beryllium Copper Alloysp. 465
Nominal Composition and Properties of Everdurp. 465
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloysp. 467
Temper Designations for Aluminum Alloysp. 468
Designation Systemsp. 471
Composition of Casting Alloysp. 473
Clad Aluminum Alloysp. 474
Characteristics of Principal Aluminum Alloy Groupsp. 474
Cast Magnesium Alloysp. 475
Wrought Magnesium Alloysp. 475
Nickel and Nickel Alloysp. 477
Inconelp. 479
Titanium and Titanium Alloysp. 479
Powder Metallurgyp. 480
Hardness Testing
Brinell Hardness Testp. 482
Rockwell Hardness Testp. 482
Shore's Scleroscopep. 483
Vickers Hardness Testp. 483
Knoop Hardness Numbersp. 483
Monotron Hardness Indicatorp. 484
Keep's Testp. 484
Comparative Hardness Scales for Steelp. 484
Creepp. 489
Creep Rupturep. 489
Identifying Metalsp. 489
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780831130794
ISBN-10: 0831130792
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 560
Published: 8th January 2001
Publisher: Industrial Press Inc.,U.S.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 17.78 x 12.7  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.45
Edition Number: 2