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Shinto and the State, 1868-1988 : Studies in Church and State - Helen Hardacre

Shinto and the State, 1868-1988

Studies in Church and State

Paperback

Published: 1st September 1991
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Helen Hardacre, a leading scholar of religious life in modern Japan, examines the Japanese state's involvement in and manipulation of shinto from the Meiji Restoration to the present. Nowhere else in modern history do we find so pronounced an example of government sponsorship of a religion as in Japan's support of shinto. How did that sponsorship come about and how was it maintained? How was it dismantled after World War II? What attempts are being made today to reconstruct it? In answering these questions, Hardacre shows why State shinto symbols, such as the Yasukuni Shrine and its prefectural branches, are still the focus for bitter struggles over who will have the right to articulate their significance.

Where previous studies have emphasized the state bureaucracy responsible for the administration of shinto, Hardacre goes to the periphery of Japanese society. She demonstrates that leaders and adherents of popular religious movements, independent religious entrepreneurs, women seeking to raise the prestige of their households, and men with political ambitions all found an association with shinto useful for self-promotion; local-level civil administrations and parish organizations have consistently patronized shinto as a way to raise the prospects of provincial communities. A conduit for access to the prestige of the state, shinto has increased not only the power of the center of society over the periphery but also the power of the periphery over the center.

One of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles for 1991

List of Tablesp. xi
Forewordp. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Introductionp. 3
Studies of State Shintop. 5
Issues, Themes, and Goalsp. 7
Shinto in the Tokugawa Era (1600-1868)p. 9
The Relation between Buddhism and Shintop. 14
Ise Pilgrimagep. 15
The Influence of National Learningp. 16
Summaryp. 18
The Modern History of Relations Between Shinto and the Statep. 21
Chronological Overviewp. 21
The Meiji Restoration and the Beginning of State Shintop. 27
The Separation of Buddhism from Shintop. 27
Building Institutionsp. 28
Disunity in the Department of Divinityp. 29
Reform of Imperial Ritualp. 31
The Creation of National Rites and Ceremoniesp. 32
The Slump of Middle Meiji (1880-1905)p. 33
Is Shinto a Religion?p. 34
The Movement to Reestablish the Department of Divinityp. 36
Shrine Building after the Russo-Japanese Warp. 37
Freedom of Religionp. 39
Postwar Shintop. 40
The Great Promulgation Campaignp. 42
The Campaignp. 42
The Pantheon Disputep. 48
The New Religions in the Great Promulgation Campaignp. 51
Conclusionp. 58
The Shinto Priesthoodp. 60
The Internal Diversity of the Shinto Priesthoodp. 60
The Evolution of a Concept of Religionp. 63
Shrine Administratorsp. 65
The Idea of a National Teachingp. 66
Shrine Administrators' Diversity and Influencep. 68
National Teaching in Practicep. 70
Questions of Doctrine and Ritesp. 72
The Provincial Priesthoodp. 73
Concluding Remarksp. 76
Shrines and the Rites of Empire Part I: Shinto Shrinesp. 79
The Separation of Buddhism from Shintop. 81
Shrine Registrationp. 83
Shrine Rankingsp. 84
Distribution of Ise Talismans and Almanacsp. 86
The Ise Shrines and Their Outpostsp. 87
The State-Sponsored Cult of the War Dead and Loyalistsp. 90
Provincial Centers of the Cult of the War Deadp. 92
The Meiji Shrinep. 93
Shrines in the Coloniesp. 95
State Shrine Supportp. 96
Shrine Mergersp. 98
Shrines and the Rites of Empire Part II: Shrine Ritesp. 100
Shrine Rites: Types and Standardizationp. 100
The Liturgical Structure of Shrine Ritesp. 102
Large-Scale State Ritesp. 104
Civic Rites in Provincial Societyp. 106
Shrine Observances Involving Schoolchildrenp. 108
Customary Observances and Shintop. 110
Conclusionp. 112
Religious Freedom Under State Shintop. 114
The Meiji Constitutionp. 115
The Imperial Rescript on Educationp. 121
The Religious Organizations Lawp. 124
The Suppression of New Religious Movementsp. 126
Shinto's Role in Restricting Religious Freedomp. 128
Conclusionp. 131
Shinto and the State Since 1945p. 133
Shinto and the Occupationp. 134
The Shinto Directivep. 136
Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and Statep. 137
The Religious Juridical Persons Lawp. 139
The Implementation of the Occupation's Policy on Religionp. 140
Shinto since World War IIp. 142
Postwar Challenges to Religious Freedom and to Separation of State and Religionp. 143
The Attempt to Reestablish State Support for the Yasukuni Shrinep. 145
The Tsu Grounds Purification Casep. 149
Cabinet Tribute at the Yasukuni Shrinep. 150
The Self-Defense Force Apotheosis Casep. 153
Conclusionp. 157
Epiloguep. 160
Appendixesp. 165
Government Expenditures for Shrines in Comparative Perspectivep. 165
The Shinto Directivep. 167
Notesp. 171
Selected Sourcesp. 191
Indexp. 199
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691020525
ISBN-10: 0691020523
Series: Studies in Church and State
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 220
Published: 1st September 1991
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 15.24  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.32