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Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring Vol. 2 : Environmental Monitoring - M. Campbell

Sensor Systems for Environmental Monitoring Vol. 2 : Environmental Monitoring

Hardcover

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Stringent legislation is forcing manufacturing industry to be aware of the impact its operations have on the environment, in order to control the effects of those operations. This book examines the problems in monitoring such effects.

Volume.- 1 Land pollution.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 Origins and forms of land pollution.- 1.1.2 Legislation.- 1.2 Common contaminant types and environmental behavior.- 1.2.1 Contaminants and site use.- 1.2.2 Commonly occurring contaminant types.- 1.2.3 Factors affecting contaminant behavior.- 1.3 Sampling and analytical procedures.- 1.3.1 General strategies.- 1.3.2 Retrieval of samples.- 1.3.3 Retrieval of liquid-phase and gaseous-phase samples.- 1.3.4 Sample preservation.- 1.3.5 Laboratory analysis.- 1.4 Monitoring equipment and instrumentation.- 1.4.1 Discrete monitoring: indirect determination of subsurface conditions.- 1.4.2 Discrete monitoring: direct determination of subsurface conditions.- 1.4.3 Field testing kits.- 1.4.4 Continuous and automatic monitoring.- 1.5 Summary.- 1.5.1 Future requirements.- 1.5.2 Pro-active monitoring and auditing.- References.- 2 Water pollution.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.1.1 Rationale for monitoring water pollution.- 2.1.2 Water quality variables and standards.- 2.2 Sampling.- 2.2.1 Spatial and temporal sampling intervals.- 2.2.2 Sample averaging.- 2.2.3 Flow-proportional sampling.- 2.2.4 Event sampling.- 2.2.5 Practical sampling techniques.- 2.3 Continuous monitoring.- 2.3.1 In situ sensors.- 2.3.2 Pumped systems.- 2.3.3 Datalogging.- 2.3.4 Telementry and warning systems.- 2.4 Physical variables.- 2.4.1 Temperature.- 2.4.2 Conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids.- 2.4.3 Turbidity and suspended solids.- 2.4.4 Colour.- 2.5 Chemical variables.- 2.5.1 Dissolved oxygen.- 2.5.2 Acidity, alkalinity and pH.- 2.5.3 Anions.- 2.5.4 Cations.- 2.5.5 Petrochemicals, oils and grease.- 2.5.6 Pesticide and herbicide residues.- 2.6 Biological variables.- 2.6.1 Biochemical oxygen demand.- 2.6.2 Total organic carbon.- 2.6.3 Chemical oxygen demand.- 2.6.4 Bacterial concentration.- 2.6.5 Phytoplankton concentration.- 2.7 Conclusions -.- 2.7.1 Summary.- 2.7.2 Future trends.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 3 Air pollution.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Air quality standards.- 3.1.2 Air pollution on the global scale.- 3.2 Characterisation of atmospheric pollutants.- 3.2.1 Gases.- 3.2.3 Particles.- 3.2.3 Dissolved pollutants.- 3.3 Air pollution sampling.- 3.3.1 Sampling philosophy.- 3.3.2 Sampling in practice.- 3.4 Monitoring modes.- 3.4.1 Continuous methods.- 3.4.2 Integrated methods.- 3.5 Conclusions.- 3.5.1 Future requirements.- References.- 4 Periodic methods for monitoring air pollution.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Sampling: the problems to overcome.- 4.3 Losses to the sample line.- 4.3.1 Condensation.- 4.3.2 Impaction.- 4.3.3 Adsorption.- 4.3.4 Reactivity.- 4.4 Classification of pollutants.- 4.5 Classification of air samplers.- 4.5.1 Extractive air samplers.- 4.5.2 Non-extractive devices.- 4.6 Detection limit.- 4.7 Gas velocity and total flow in a duct.- 4.7.1 Terms used in flow measurements.- 4.7.2 Flow measurements for total flow.- 4.7.3 Flow measurements in swirling flow conditions.- 4.7.4 Flow measurements associated with particulate sampling.- 4.7.5 A procedure for small- and medium-scale industry.- 4.7.6 Non-standard flow patterns.- 4.8 Measurement of particulate in ducts.- 4.8.1 Particle sizes.- 4.8.2 Particle segregation.- 4.8.3 Sample positions in the duct.- 4.8.4 Isokinetic sampling.- 4.8.5 Non-standard conditions.- 4.8.6 Monitoring methods.- 4.8.7 Analysis.- 4.9 Sampling devices for non-reactive gases and vapours.- 4.9.1 Grabs or non-extractable samplers.- 4.9.2 Adsorption tubes with solvent recovery.- 4.9.3 Adsorption tubes with thermal recovery.- 4.10 Wet impingers and sintered glass absorbers.- 4.11 Cryogenic methods.- 4.11.1 Total cryogenic sampling.- 4.11.2 Cryogenic tubes.- 4.11.3 Condensate samplers.- 4.12 Odour measurement.- 4.13 Instrumental methods for use in the field.- 4.13.1 Advantages and disadvantages of field instruments.- 4.13.2 Dataloggers.- 4.13.3 Calibration.- 4.13.4 Calibrating monitors for volatile organic compounds.- 4.14 Standard atmospheres.- 4.14.1 Aerosols.- 4.14.2 Gases and vapours.- 4.15 Selected methods.- 4.16 Conclusion.- Acknowledgements.- Appendix 1: References to the Environmental Protection Agency of the USA.- Appendix 2: References to the NIOSH methods.- Appendix 3: References to the Health and Safety Executive methods for the determination of hazardous substances (HSE MDHS).- Appendix 4: References to the ASTM standard methods.- References.- 5 Industrial methods of spectrophotometry measurements in process control.- 5.1 Introduction to process analytical chemistry.- 5.1.1 Off-line era.- 5.1.2 At-lineera.- 5.1.3 On-line era.- 5.1.4 In-line era.- 5.1.5 Non-invasive era.- 5.1.6 Summary.- 5.2 Project route.- 5.2.1 Project definition.- 5.2.2 Applications engineering.- 5.2.3 Technology transfer.- 5.2.4 Documentation.- 5.3 Industrial uses of spectroscopy.- 5.4 Industrial measurements in the UV-visible region.- 5.4.1 Photometer analyser design.- 5.4.2 Spectrophotometer analysers.- 5.4.3 Flow injection analysers.- 5.4.4 Process applications of FIA.- 5.4.5 Summary.- 5.5 Industrial measurements in the IR region.- 5.5.1 Mid-IR spectroscopic analysis.- 5.5.2 Near-IR spectroscopic analysis.- 5.6 Quantitative measurement in spectroscopy.- 5.6.1 Beer's law.- 5.6.2 Derivative techniques.- 5.6.3 Absorbance ratio analysis.- 5.6.4 Multicomponent analysis.- 5.6.5 Curve fitting.- 5.6.6 Chemometrics.- 5.7 Future trends.- References.- 6 Noise and vibration.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Noise sources.- 6.2.1 Introduction.- 6.2.2 Traffic.- 6.2.3 Railways.- 6.2.4 Aircraft.- 6.2.5 Industrial and commercial developments.- 6.2.6 Wind turbines.- 6.2.7 Building services.- 6.2.8 Mechanisms for sound transmission within buildings.- 6.3 Legislation.- 6.3.1 Planning guidelines.- 6.3.2 Environmental assessment.- 6.3.3 Environmental Protection Act 1990.- 6.3.4 Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993.- 6.3.5 Control of Pollution Act 1974.- 6.3.6 Industrial and commercial developments.- 6.3.7 Neighbour noise.- 6.3.8 Codes of practice.- 6.3.9 Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986.- 6.3.10 EC directives.- 6.3.11 Aircraft regulations.- 6.3.12 Railways.- 6.3.13 Noise at work regulations.- 6.3.14 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1992).- 6.3.15 Building regulations.- 6.3.16 Vibration.- 6.4 Measurement.- 6.4.1 Sound pressure meter.- 6.4.2 Calibration.- 6.4.3 Monitoring points.- 6.4.4 Meteorological conditions.- 6.4.5 Sound power measurements.- 6.4.6 Sound intensity measurements.- 6.4.7 Vibration measurements.- 6.5 Noise reduction and control.- 6.5.1 Traffic.- 6.5.2 Railways.- 6.5.3 Aircraft.- 6.5.4 Wind turbines.- 6.5:5 Sound within buildings.- 6.5.6 Vibration control.- 6.6 Future trends.- 6.7 Glossary.- References.- 7 Ionising radiation.- 7.1 Introduction to radiation.- 7.1.1 Use of radioactive substances.- 7.1.2 Legislation.- 7.2 Properties of ionising radiation.- 7.2.1 Radioactive decay.- 7.2.2 Types of radiation.- 7.2.3 Units of radiation.- 7.2.4 Health effects.- 7.2.5 Hazards.- 7.2.6 Protection standards.- 7.3 Sources of ionising radiation.- 7.3.1 Natural sources.- 7.3.2 Artificial sources.- 7.3.3 Summary of radiation sources.- 7.4 In situ measurements.- 7.4.1 Health physics instruments.- 7.4.2 External dose rate.- 7.4.3 Surface contamination.- 7.4.4 Field ?-ray spectrometry.- 7.5 Sampling.- 7.5.1 General considerations.- 7.5.2 Soils.- 7.5.3 Vegetation.- 7.5.4 Atmospheric sampling.- 7.5.5 Sediments.- 7.5.6 Waters.- 7.6 Analytical procedures.- 7.6.1 Physical preparation.- 7.6.2 Chemical separation.- 7.6.3 Instrumentation.- 7.6.4 Quality assurance and validation.- 7.7 Case study.- 7.8 Conclusions.- 7.8.1 Summary.- 7.8.2 Future trends.- References.

ISBN: 9780751404197
ISBN-10: 0751404195
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 359
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.71