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Seeing Space - Robert A. Crone

Hardcover Published: 1st January 2003
ISBN: 9789026519550
Number Of Pages: 185

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Spatial vision is a subject in which philosophy, psychology, ophthalmology, neurophysiology and pathology meet. It is the unique contribution of this book that gives a survey of the whole subject, in historical perspective. The author, a former professor of ophthalmology at the University of Amsterdam, is an authority in the field of binocular vision (Diplopia, 1973) and colour vision (History of Color, 1999). Seeing Space is written for ophthalmologists, optometrists, orthoptists and other practitioners of visual science, but also for psychologists and anybody interested in the philosophy and science of perception. The book contains three parts: Part I contains chapters on objective and subjective space and on non-visual space perception. Part II begins with a short survey of the visual system. As eye movements are of crucial importance in the perception of space, the evolution of the eye and the eye movements is described. There are chapters on the perception of direction, stereoscopic depth and movement. A sensorimotor theory of space perception is elaborated. Part III is dedicated to the perception of objects. There are chapters on the perception of contours, surfaces, dimensionality and size (including the "moon illusion"). Finally the problem of the relation between mind and matter is raised, but not solved.

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgementsp. xiii
p. 1
A Short History of Spacep. 3
Space in ancient timesp. 3
Space theory in the Middle Agesp. 4
Space in the Renaissancep. 5
Newton's spacep. 5
The geometry of spacep. 6
How empty is space?p. 6
The principle of special relativityp. 6
The principle of general relativityp. 7
The quantum theoryp. 7
Objective spacep. 9
Perceptual Spacep. 11
Historical notesp. 11
Locke: Primary and secondary featuresp. 11
Berkeleyp. 12
Kantp. 12
Biological aspects of spatial localisationp. 14
Psychological aspects of spatial localisationp. 14
Animals and psychologyp. 14
Psychological description of the human beingp. 15
Real space as proof station for phenomenal spacep. 15
The place of biology and psychology in a pluralistic worldp. 16
The area between perception and actionp. 17
Non-Visual Spatial Perceptionp. 19
Introductionp. 19
The organ of equilibriump. 19
Kinaesthesis and touchp. 20
Touch and vision in historical perspectivep. 20
Nativism and empirismp. 22
The Visual Perception of Spacep. 25
Some Basic Facts about the Visual Systemp. 27
The eye and the ocular musclesp. 27
The optics of the eyep. 27
The eye muscles and eye movementsp. 28
The retinap. 29
The visual pathwaysp. 34
A short history of neural localisationp. 38
The Evolution of the Eye and the Movements of the Eyep. 43
The evolution of the eyep. 43
The evolution of the eye movementsp. 46
Compensatory movements and binocular optomotor reflexesp. 46
Monocular eye movementsp. 47
The fovea and the visual fixation of preyp. 48
Binocular vision and convergence in the chameleon and in fishp. 49
Depth vision and disparityp. 51
Binocular vision in birdsp. 51
Depth perception and the semidecussation of the optic nerves in mammals: corresponding binocular pointsp. 52
Semidecussation and conjugate movementsp. 54
Directional Visionp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Directional vision and eye movementsp. 55
Retinal local signsp. 56
The influence of compensatory eye movements on directional visionp. 56
Influence of gaze movementsp. 58
Directional vision with two eyesp. 59
The range of directional visionp. 59
The visual fieldp. 60
The charting of the visual field in the brainp. 61
Charting the visual field in the area striatap. 62
Precision of directional visionp. 65
The precision of the motor systemp. 65
The subjective precision of directional visionp. 67
Visual acuity, optics and contrastp. 68
The optical qualityp. 70
Contrastp. 71
Visual systems analysisp. 71
The neurophysiology of the visual acuityp. 74
The retinap. 75
The lateral geniculate bodyp. 77
The visual cortexp. 77
Visual systems analysis and neurophysiologyp. 78
The pathology of directional visionp. 79
Stereoscopic Perception of Depthp. 83
A model of binocular visionp. 83
The history of binocular depth perceptionp. 86
Some psycho-physiological aspects of stereopsisp. 93
Physiological double vision: the range of the oblique connectionsp. 93
The horopterp. 95
The limits of depth perceptionp. 96
Estimation of absolute stereoscopic depthp. 96
Estimation of relative stereoscopic depthp. 97
Fusion: vision below the threshold of stereoscopic visionp. 98
Range of fusionp. 99
The fusion curve and the motor role of disparityp. 99
Rivalry, suppression and dominancep. 101
Dominancep. 102
The psychophysics of stereogramsp. 102
Julesz' random dots patternp. 104
Stereoscopy and vergencep. 108
The neurophysiology of binocular visionp. 109
The neurophysiology of disjunctive movementsp. 111
The Pathology of Binocular Depth Perception: Squint and Amblyopiap. 113
Squint (Strabismus)p. 113
A short history of squintp. 113
Abnormal binocular visionp. 117
The cause of squintp. 119
The ontogeny of binocular visionp. 120
Amblyopiap. 121
Neurophysiology of amblyopiap. 122
The Perception of Movementp. 125
Introductionp. 125
Three forms of movement perceptionp. 125
Movement perception with a stationary eyep. 125
Movement perception with the following eyep. 127
Following movements and parafoveal fixationp. 127
Apparent movementp. 128
Wandering starsp. 128
Induced movementp. 129
The waterfall illusionp. 129
The filmp. 130
The neurophysiology of movement perceptionp. 130
The pathology of movement perceptionp. 130
Theories of the visual perception of spacep. 133
Introductionp. 133
The psychological theory of spatial vision in historical perspectivep. 133
Johannes Kepler and the projection theoryp. 134
The sensorimotor theory of spatial vision in historical perspectivep. 137
Descartesp. 137
Lotzep. 138
Roelofs and the principle of equivalencep. 140
Stability and plasticity of visual orientationp. 140
The future of a sensorimotor theory of spatial localisationp. 143
Identification of Objects in Spacep. 145
Contours and Surfacesp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Contours, contrasts and the primary sketchp. 150
The perception of surfacesp. 152
Seeing Objects in Depthp. 157
Perspectivep. 157
Other pictorial depth effectsp. 160
Necker's cubep. 160
Depth perception through movementp. 161
The objective form of objectsp. 162
The Perception of Sizep. 167
Introductionp. 167
Emmert's lawp. 167
The sizes of the sun and the moon: a historical digressionp. 168
The Neurophysiology and Neuropathology of the Perception of Objectsp. 171
Introductionp. 171
Unsolved problemsp. 172
Referencesp. 175
Indexp. 181
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789026519550
ISBN-10: 9026519559
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 185
Published: 1st January 2003
Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.78  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.57
Edition Number: 1