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Sedimentology : Process and Product :  Process and Product - Mike R. Leeder

Sedimentology : Process and Product

Process and Product

Paperback Published: May 1982
ISBN: 9780412533006
Number Of Pages: 344

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As an interdisciplinary subject, sedimentology involves both a traditional descriptive approach from the viewpoint of geology or geomorphology, and a quantitative approach from mathematics, physics and chemistry. One of the main aims of the book is to bridge this cultural gap and to demonstrate clearly the contributions of both sides in an integrative manner. A basic knowledge of geology, physics, chemistry and mathematics is assumed as background, but no understanding of advanced mathematics is needed. The coverage starts with the origin of sediment grains and progresses through fluid flow, sediment transport and deposition to bedforms and sedimentary structures. The principles of facies analysis are then presented before their application to continental, coastal and oceanic sediments. Finally, diagenesis - including organic diagenesis - is discussed and the book ends with a useful account of hydrocarbons.

One The Origin of Sediment Grains.- Theme.- 1 The origin of terriginous clastic grains.- 1a Introduction.- 1b The role of water in rock weathering.- 1c Oxidation, reduction and Eh-pH diagrams.- 1d Rock-forming minerals during weathering.- 1e Breakdown products and new-formed minerals.- 1f Physical weathering.- 1g Sediment yields.- 1h Clastic grains and source identification.- 1i Sourcelands, differentiation and plate tectonics.- 1j Summary.- Further reading.- 2 The origin of calcium carbonate grains.- 2a Introduction.- 2b Recent marine carbonate sediments.- 2c The composition of fresh water and sea water.- 2d The major carbonate minerals.- 2e Primary carbonate precipitation.- 2f Carbonate grains of biological origin.- 2g A skeletal origin for aragonite muds?.- 2h Micrite envelopes and intraclasts.- 2i Pellets and peloids.- 2j Ooliths.- 2k Grapestones.- 2l Polygenetic origin of carbonate grains.- 2m Shallow temperate-water carbonates.- 2n CaCo3 dissolution in the deep ocean.- 2o Summary.- Further reading.- Appendix 2.1 Staining and peel techniques.- 3 Evaporites, biogenic silica, and phosphates.- 3a Evaporites.- 3b Biogenic silica.- 3c Phosphates.- 3d Summary.- Further reading.- 4 Grain properties.- 4a Definition and range of grain size.- 4b Grain size distributions.- 4c Characteristics of grain populations.- 4d Size parameters and distributions.- 4e Grain abrasion and breakage.- 4f Grain shape and form.- 4g Bulk properties of grain aggregates.- 4h A note on grain fabric.- 4i Summary.- Further reading.- Two Fluid Flow and Sediment Transport.- Theme.- 5 Fluid properties and fluid motion.- 5a Introduction.- 5b Physical properties.- 5c Streamlines and flow visualisation.- 5d Friction, pressure changes and the energy budget.- 5e The Reynolds number.- 5f Froude number.- 5g Laminar flows.- 5h Introduction to turbulent flows.- 5i The structure of turbulent shear flows.- 5j Flow separation and secondary currents.- 5k Summary.- Further reading.- Appendices.- 5.1 Bernoulli's equation.- 5.2 Reynolds number.- 5.3 Velocity profiles of viscous channel flow.- 5.4 Derivation of the Karman-Prandtl velocity law for turbulent flow.- 6 Transport of sediment grains.- 6a Introduction.- 6b Grains in stationary fluids.- 6c Initiation of particle motion.- 6d Paths of grain motion.- 6e Solid transmitted stresses.- 6f Sediment transport theory.- 6g Summary.- Further reading.- Appendix 6.1 Stokes' law of settling.- 7 Sediment gravity flows.- 7a Introduction.- 7b Grain flows.- 7c Debris flows.- 7d Liquefied flows.- 7e Turbidity flows.- 7f Deposits of sediment gravity flows.- 7g Summary.- Further reading.- Appendices.- 7.1 Dispersive pressure and grain flow.- 7.2 A note on autosuspension in turbidity currents.- Three Bedforms and Sedimentary Structures.- Theme.- 8 Bedforms and structures in granular sediments.- 8a Bedforms and structures formed by unidirectional water flows.- 8b Further notes on bedform phase diagrams.- 8c Bedforms and structures formed by water waves.- 8d Coarse/fine laminations and graded bedding.- 8e Bedforms and structures formed by air flows.- 8f Bedform 'lag' effects.- 8g Summary.- Further reading.- Appendix 8.1 Notes on bedform theory for water flows.- 9 Bedforms caused by erosion of cohesive sediment.- 9a Water erosion of cohesive beds.- 9b Erosion by 'tools'.- 9c Summary.- Further reading.- 10 Biogenic and organo-sedimentary structures.- 10a Stromatolites.- 10b Trace fossils and deposition rates.- 10c Summary.- Further reading.- 11 Soft sediment deformation structures.- 11a Reduction of sediment strength.- 11b Liquefaction and water escape structures.- 11c Liquefaction and current drag structures.- 11d Diapirism and differential loading structures.- 11e Slides, growth faults and slumps.- 11f Desiccation and syneresis shrinkage structures.- 11g Summary.- Further reading.- Four Environmental and Facies Analysis.- Theme.- 12 Environmental and fades analysis.- 12a Scope and philosophy.- 12b Depositional systems and facies.- 12c Succession, preservation and analysis.- 12d Subsidence, uplift and deposition.- 12e Transgression, regression and diachronism.- 12f Palaeocurrents.- 12g The Holocene.- 12h Basin analysis and plate tectonics.- 12i Summary.- Further reading.- Appendix 12.1 Vector statistics in palaeocurrent analysis.- Five Continental Environments and Facies Analysis.- Theme.- 13 Deserts.- 13a Introduction.- 13b Physical processes and erg formation.- 13c Modern desert facies.- 13d Ancient desert facies.- 13e Summary.- Further reading.- 14 Alluvial fans.- 14a Introduction.- 14b Physical processes.- 14c Modern facies.- 14d Ancient alluvial fan facies.- 14e Summary.- Further reading.- 15 River plains.- 15a Introduction.- 15b Physical processes.- 15c Modern river plain facies.- 15d Ancient river plain facies.- 15e Summary.- Further reading.- Appendices.- 15.1 The helical flow cell.- 15.2 Palaeohydraulics.- 16 Lakes.- 16a Introduction.- 16b Physical and chemical processes.- 16c Modern lake facies.- 16d Ancient lake facies.- 16e Summary.- Further reading.- 17 Glacial environments.- 17a Introduction.- 17b Physical processes.- 17c Pleistocene and modern glacial facies.- 17d Ancient glacial facies.- 17e Summary.- Further reading.- Six Coastal and Shelf Environments and Facies Analysis.- Theme.- 18 Physical processes of coast and shelf.- 18a Introduction.- 18b Wind-generated waves.- 18c Tides and tidal waves.- 18d Summary.- Further reading.- Appendix 18.1 Deep-water wave theory.- 19 Deltas.- 19a Introduction.- 19b Physical processes.- 19c Modern deltaic facies.- 19d Ancient deltaic facies.- 19e Summary.- Further reading.- 20 Estuaries.- 20a Introduction.- 20b Estuarine dynamics.- 20c Modern estuarine facies.- 20d Ancient estuarine facies.- 20e Summary.- Further reading.- 21 'Linear' clastic shorelines.- 21a Introduction.- 21b Physical processes.- 21c Recent facies of linear clastic shorelines.- 21d Ancient clastic shoreline facies.- 21e Summary.- Further reading.- 22 Clastic shelves.- 22a Introduction.- 22b Shelf dynamics.- 22c Recent shelf facies.- 22d Ancient clastic shelf facies.- 22e Summary.- Further reading.- 23 Carbonate-evaporite shorelines, shelves and basins.- 23a Introduction.- 23b Arid tidal flats and sabkhas.- 23c Humid tidal flats and marshes.- 23d Lagoons and bays.- 23e Tidal delta and spillover oolite sands.- 23f Open carbonate shelves.- 23g Platform margin reefs and buildups.- 23h Platform margin slopes and basins.- 23i Sub-aqueous evaporites.- 23j Summary.- Further reading.- Seven Oceanic Environments and Facies Analysis.- Theme.- 24 Oceanic processes.- 24a Introduction.- 24b Physical processes.- 24c Chemical and biochemical processes.- 24d Surface currents and circulation.- 24e Structure, deep currents and circulation.- 24f Slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents.- 24g Palaeo-oceanography.- 24h Summary.- Further reading.- 25 Clastic oceanic environments.- 25a Introduction.- 25b Continental slopes and rises of passive margins.- 25c Submarine fans and cones.- 25d Abyssal plains.- 25e Trenches and fore-arc basins of active margins.- 25f Summary.- Further reading.- 26 Pelagic oceanic sediments.- 26a Sediment types.- 26b Oceanic facies successions.- 26c Anoxic oceans and oceanic events.- 26d Hypersaline oceans.- 26e Continental outcrops of ancient facies.- 26f Summary.- Further reading.- Eight Diagenesis: Sediment Into Rock.- Theme.- 27 Diagenesis: general considerations.- 27a Definitions.- 27b Subsurface pressure and temperature.- 27c Petrography in diagenetic studies.- 27d Stable isotopes in diagenetic studies 260 27e Eh-pH phase diagrams in diagenetic studies.- 27f Compaction and fluid migration.- 27g Pressure solution.- 27h Diagenetic realms.- 27i Summary.- Further reading.- 28 Terrigenous clastic sediments.- 28a Introduction.- 28b Marine mud diagenesis.- 28c Non-marine mud diagenesis.- 28d Classification of mudrocks.- 28e Near-surface sand diagenesis.- 28f Subsurface sand diagenesis.- 28g Secondary porosity and sandstone diagenesis.- 28h Classification.- Further reading.- 29 Carbonate sediments.- 29a Introduction.- 29b Early meteoric diagenesis.- 29c Early marine diagenesis.- 29d Subsurface diagenesis by formation waters.- 29e Summary of limestone diagenesis.- 29f Models for dolomitisation.- 29g Classification.- 29h Summary.- Further reading.- 30 Evaporites, silica, iron and manganese.- 30a Evaporites.- 30b Silica diagenesis.- 30c Iron minerals.- 30d Manganese.- 30e Summary.- Further reading.- 31 Hydrocarbons.- 31a Introduction.- 31b Coal composition and rank.- 31c Coal-forming environments.- 31d Oil and gas - organic matter, source rock and diagenesis.- 31e Oil and gas migration.- 31f Oil and gas traps and reservoir studies.- 31g Tar sands.- 31h Oil shales.- 31i Summary.- Further reading.- References.

ISBN: 9780412533006
ISBN-10: 0412533006
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 344
Published: May 1982
Publisher: Chapman and Hall
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.61 x 19.08  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.88
Edition Type: New edition