In recent years, much concern has been expressed on the deleterious effects that anthropogenic emissions of acidic pollutants have on ecosystems of both industrialized countries and remote areas of the world. In many of these regions, seasonal snowcover is a major factor in the transfer of atmospheric pollutants, either to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems or to the more permanent reservoirs of glaciers and ice sheets. The recognition of the role that seasonal snowcovers can thus play in the chemical dynamics of whole ecosystems was recently echoed by the Committee on Glaciology of the National Research Council (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine) which recommended that studies on "Impurities in the snowpack, their discharge into runoff, and management of the problem" be rated at the highest prority level (ref. a). It is in this context that the Advanced Research Institute (ASI) brought together scientists active in the fields of snow physics, snow chemistry and snow hydrology. The programme was structured so as to facilitate the exchange of information and ideas on the theories for the chemical evolution of seasonal snowcovers and snowmelt and on the impact of the chemical composition of the meltwaters on the different components of hydrological systems. As a consequence the ASI also attracted participants from potential users of the information that was disseminated; these were particularly concerned with the effects of snowmelt and snowcover on terrestrial biota and those of lakes and streams.
` This volume should serve as the starting point for this area of science. '
British Antartic Survey. '
1 Snow Metamorphism and Classification.- 2 Water Vapor Transport in Snow. A 2-D Simulation of Temperature Gradient Metamorphism.- 3 Measurement of Snow Grain Properties.- 4 Experimental Study on Thermal Convection and Grains Picture Analysis.- 5 The Fractionation of Natural Isotopes during Temperature Gradient Metamorphism of Snow.- 6 Avalanche Forecasting and Snow Physics.- 7 Wind Transport of Seasonal Snowcovers.- 8 Note on certain Diurnal Variations in the Albedo of Snow and Ice.- 9 Modelling of Snowmelt Rates in a Deciduous Forest.- 10 Prediction of Snow Density and Temperature Changes within Layers of the Snowpack using a Point Energy and Mass Balance Model.- 11 Modelling of Water Flow through Snowpacks.- 12 Direct Scavenging and Induced Transport of Atmospheric Aerosol by Falling Snow and Ice Crystals.- 13 Experimental Protocol for the Chemical Analysis of Snow, Firn and Ice Cores.- 14 Review of Snowpack Chemistry Studies.- 15 Chemical Transformations in a Snowcover at Weissfluhjoch, Switzerland, situated 2500 m.a.s.l..- 16 The Chemical Evolution of a Seasonal Snowcover at Mid-and-High Altitudes.- 17 Physical and Chemical Factors controlling Gaseous Deposition of SO2 to Snow.- 18 The Contribution of Dry Deposition to Snowpack Acidity in Michigan.- 19 Wind as a Factor in the Direct Measurement of the Dry Deposition of Acid Pollutants to Snowcovers.- 20 The Removal of Soluble Ions from Melting Snowpacks.- 21 Aspects of the Chemistry of Ice, notably Snow, on Lakes.- 22 Methodology for Investigation of Snowmelt Hydrology and Chemistry within an undisturbed Canadian Shield Watershed.- 23 Shortterm Changes in the Fluxes of Water and of Dissolved Solutes during Snow-melt.- 24 Chemical Dynamics of Snowcover and Snowmelt in a Boreal Forest.- 25 Changes in Streamwater Chemistry during Snowmelt.- 26 Snowmelt runoff in the Lake Laflamme Experimental Watershed, Quebec: Methodology and Preliminary Results.- 27 Observations of Snowmelt run-off Pathways on a Slope in a Boreal Forest Environment, Lac Laflamme, Quebec.- 28 A Comparison of Chemical and Isotopic Hydrograph Separation.- 29 An Isotopic and Geochemical Study of Seasonal Snowmelt runoff in the Apex River Watershed.- 30 Snow Chemistry with particular reference for the Chemical Composition of Snow in Scandinavia.- 31 Snowcover and Snowmelt Processes studied by means of Environmental Isotopes.
Series: NATO Asi Series. Series C, Mathematical and Physical Science
Number Of Pages: 746
Published: 31st October 1987
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6
Weight (kg): 1.24