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Science under Scarcity : Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research Evaluation and Priority Setting :  Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research Evaluation and Priority Setting - Julian M. Alston

Science under Scarcity : Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research Evaluation and Priority Setting

Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research Evaluation and Priority Setting

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Published: July 1998
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List of Illustrations List of tables Foreword, Vernon W. Ruttan Preface Introduction Part I Institutional and Conceptual Framework 1. The Insitutional, Scientific, and Policy Contexts 2. Research Evaluation and Priority-Setting Principles Part II Measuring the Effects of Agricultural Research 3. Econometric Measurement of the Effects of Research 4. Economic Surplus Methods Part III Evaluation and Priority Setting in Practice 5. Economic Surplus Measurement and Application 6. Mathematical Programming 7. Scoring and Other Shortcut Approaches Part IV Overview and Assessment 8. Assessment and Conclusion References Author Index Subject Index

"Not scarcity of food, but of funding for research has inspired Alston (agricultural and resource economics, U. of California-Davis), George W. Norton (agricultural and applied economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U.) and Philip G. Pardey (applied economics, U. of Minnesota) to explain to research analysts and administrators some economic methods for evaluating and prioritizing research. They apply to agricultural research such tools as economic surplus analysis, economic techniques, mathematical programming procedures, and scoring models."--SciTech Book News "Not scarcity of food, but of funding for research has inspired Alston (agricultural and resource economics, U. of California-Davis), George W. Norton (agricultural and applied economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U.) and Philip G. Pardey (applied economics, U. of Minnesota) to explain to research analysts and administrators some economic methods for evaluating and prioritizing research. They apply to agricultural research such tools as economic surplus analysis, economic techniques, mathematical programming procedures, and scoring models."--SciTech Book News "Not scarcity of food, but of funding for research has inspired Alston (agricultural and resource economics, U. of California-Davis), George W. Norton (agricultural and applied economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U.) and Philip G. Pardey (applied economics, U. of Minnesota) to explain to research analysts and administrators some economic methods for evaluating and prioritizing research. They apply to agricultural research such tools as economic surplus analysis, economic techniques, mathematical programming procedures, and scoring models."--SciTech Book News "Not scarcity of food, but of funding for research has inspired Alston (agricultural and resource economics, U. of California-Davis), George W. Norton (agricultural and applied economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U.) and Philip G. Pardey (applied economics, U. of Minnesota) to explain to research analysts and administrators some economic methods for evaluating and prioritizing research. They apply to agricultural research such tools as economic surplus analysis, economic techniques, mathematical programming procedures, and scoring models."--SciTech Book News

List of Illustrationsp. xiii
List of Tablesp. xvii
Forewordp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
Introductionp. xxix
Intended Audiencep. xxx
Topical Outlinep. xxxi
Institutional and Conceptual Framework
The Institutional, Scientific, and Policy Contextsp. 3
Institutional Settingp. 4
Executing Agenciesp. 4
Structure within Agenciesp. 5
Types of Decisionsp. 6
Funding Arrangementsp. 7
Scientific Contextp. 8
Basic, Applied, and Adaptive Researchp. 8
Research and Technology-Transfer Linkagesp. 9
Dynamicsp. 10
The Policy Contextp. 11
The Economic Justification for Government Interventionp. 12
Research as an Instrument of Social Policyp. 14
Political Economy Perspective on the Demand for Researchp. 16
Roles for Social Science Researchp. 17
Research Evaluation and Priority-Setting Principlesp. 19
Investing in Research and Technical Changep. 21
Relating Research, Knowledge, and Productionp. 22
Economic Consequences of Agricultural Researchp. 27
Other Issues--Uncertainty and Adjustment Costsp. 34
Measuring Benefits and Costs Using Economic Surplus Conceptsp. 40
Basics of Economic Surplus Measuresp. 41
Criticisms of Economic Surplus as a Welfare Measurep. 43
"Alternatives" to Economic Surplus Analysisp. 54
Determinants of the Size and Distribution of Benefits and Costsp. 57
Critical Assumptions in the Modelp. 58
Extensions to the Basic Modelp. 65
Economy-Wide (General-Equilibrium) Implications of Researchp. 78
Distinguishing between Partial- and General-Equilibrium Modelsp. 78
Practical Approaches for Research Evaluationp. 79
Reconciling Multiple Objectives of Researchp. 80
Economic Efficiencyp. 81
Equity (Income Distribution) and Security Objectivesp. 82
Trading off Multiple Objectivesp. 87
Conclusions and Discussionp. 92
Measuring the Effects of Agricultural Research
Econometric Measurement of the Effects of Researchp. 97
Conceptual Models of Production, Productivity, and Technical Changep. 99
Parametric Approachesp. 102
Nonparametric Approachesp. 116
Index-Number Approachesp. 120
Specification and Measurement Issuesp. 142
Primal Modelsp. 143
Dual Modelsp. 146
Single-Equation Supply Modelsp. 150
Output and Input Datap. 153
Research and Extension Variablesp. 167
Statistical and Econometric Issuesp. 188
Calculating the Effects of Researchp. 191
Growth Accountingp. 191
Research-Benefit Streamsp. 193
Economic Surplus Methodsp. 207
The Basic Modelp. 208
Surplus Distribution in the Basic Modelp. 208
Disaggregating Benefits and Costsp. 210
Horizontal Market Relationshipsp. 212
Multiple Markets for a Single Productp. 212
Disaggregating Consumer and Producer Surplusp. 228
Multiple Products: Some General Issuesp. 230
Multiple Products Related in Consumptionp. 237
Multiple Products Related in Productionp. 240
Demand Shiftsp. 243
Vertical Market Relationshipsp. 246
Two Factors with Fixed Factor Proportionsp. 246
Two Factors with Variable Factor Proportionsp. 251
Research Benefits with Input Substitutionp. 256
Models with More Than Two Factors of Productionp. 264
Market-Distorting Policies and Research Benefitsp. 266
Closed-Economy Examplesp. 270
The Small-Country Trader Casep. 275
Large-Country Trader Modelsp. 284
Overvalued or Undervalued Exchange Ratesp. 291
Sustainability Issues and Other Externalitiesp. 293
Research Benefits in the Presence of Environmental Externalitiesp. 294
Resource Depletion, Intergenerational Equity, and Agricultural Researchp. 297
Conclusionp. 298
Evaluation and Priority Setting in Practice
Economic Surplus Measurement and Applicationp. 303
Defining the Problemp. 305
Clients for the Analysis--Decisions to Be Servedp. 305
The Objectives of the Analysis--Terms of Referencep. 306
The Scope of the Analysis--Research Programs and Program Alternativesp. 307
Objectives for the Research System--Measures of Benefitsp. 309
Strategy for the Analysis--Degree of Detailp. 311
Market-Related Datap. 314
Price and Quantity Datap. 316
Elasticitiesp. 319
Discount Rate and "Exogenous" Growth Factorsp. 324
Measuring the Research-Induced Supply Shiftp. 326
Conceptual Issuesp. 328
Practical Measurementp. 332
Research Risk and Lags in Research, Development, and Adoptionp. 349
Application--Analyzing and Using the Data and the Resultsp. 361
Calculating the Streams of Research Benefits and Costsp. 361
Capital Budgetingp. 362
Calculating Other Consequences of Researchp. 364
Variance of the Research Portfolio and Sensitivity Analysisp. 365
Using the Results in Decision Makingp. 369
Conclusionp. 377
Reality Checkp. 377
Achieving a Balancep. 379
Computing Research Benefitsp. 380
A Spreadsheet Approachp. 380
The Dream Approachp. 386
Selected Formulas for Calculating Research Benefitsp. 395
Simplified, Two-Country Modelp. 395
Alternative Formulas for a Small, Open, Distorted Economyp. 401
Estimating K Using Industry and Experiment Datap. 411
A Two-Factor Equilibrium-Displacement Modelp. 411
Summary of Algebraic Resultsp. 416
Data for Estimating the Supply-Shifting Effects of Researchp. 419
Elicitation Form Cover Sheetp. 424
Research Resourcesp. 425
Research Impact--Estimating k[superscript MAX]p. 429
Research Dynamicsp. 433
Research Riskp. 438
Reconciliationp. 439
Mathematical Programmingp. 441
Mathematical-Programming Principlesp. 443
Basics of Mathematical-Programming Modelsp. 443
Formulations for Research Resource Allocationp. 450
Mathematical Programming in Practicep. 456
Model Designp. 457
Compiling Data and Calculating Coefficientsp. 460
Running the Modelp. 460
Conclusionp. 462
Scoring and Other Shortcut Approachesp. 463
Scoringp. 465
Common Practice versus Basic Principlesp. 465
Defining a Simple Scoring Modelp. 472
Implementing a Scoring Modelp. 482
Other Shortcut Proceduresp. 487
Rules of Thumb and Guidelinesp. 487
Conclusionp. 492
The Problem of Units in Eliciting Weightsp. 494
Overview and Assessment
Assessment and Conclusionp. 501
Conceptual Framework Revisitedp. 502
Deciding on the Method and Degree of Detailp. 503
Methods for Ex Post Evaluation of Research Programsp. 504
Methods for Ex Ante Research Evaluationp. 506
Setting Prioritiesp. 507
Selecting Projects or Experimentsp. 508
Areas for Future Model Development and Applicationp. 509
Conclusionp. 511
Referencesp. 515
Author Indexp. 553
Subject Indexp. 561
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780851992990
ISBN-10: 0851992994
Series: Cabi
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 624
Published: July 1998
Publisher: CABI Publishing
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 3.38
Weight (kg): 0.92