Whoever wants to understand the genesis of modern Science has to follow three lines of development, all starting in antiquity, which were brought together in the work of ISAAC NEWTON, namely 1. Ancient Mathematics => DESCARTES 2. Ancient Astronomy => COPERNICUS : ~~~~ I=> NEWTON 3. Ancient Mechanics => GALILEO => HUYGENS In Science Awakening I (Dutch edition 1950, first Eng1ish edition 1954, second 1961, first German edition 1956, second 1965) I have followed the first 1ine, giving an outline of the development of Mathematics in Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece. Volume II, dealing with Egyptian and Baby1onian Astronomy first appeared in German under the title 'Die Anfange der Astronomie' (Noordhoff, Groningen 1965 and Birkhau- ser, Basel 1968). The volume was written in collaboration with PETER HUBER (Swiss Federal School of Technology, Zurich). HUBER has written considerable parts of Chap- ters 3 and 4, in particular all transcriptions of cuneiform texts in these chapters. I also had much help from ERNST WEIDNER (Graz), MARTIN VERMASEREN (Amsterdam), JOSEF JANSEN (Leiden) and MANU LEUMANN (Zurich).