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School Consultation : Conceptual and Empirical Bases of Practice - William P. Erchul

School Consultation

Conceptual and Empirical Bases of Practice

Hardcover Published: 18th March 2010
ISBN: 9781441957467
Number Of Pages: 258

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Since its emergence during the 1960s, school consultation has become an important vehicle for delivering psychological and educational services. Cooperative efforts between skilled consultants and teachers, rooted in the principles of problem solving, social influence, and professional development, enhance student learning and adjustment while encouraging consultees to be more effective and proactive in their practice.

The Third Edition of School Consultation: Conceptual and Empirical Bases of Practice shows in expert detail how this relationship works by synthesizing mental health and behavioral models of consultation with the most effective evidence-based practices (e.g., implementation support, response to intervention) informing the field today. The authors provide real-world contexts for all participants in the equation-consultants, teachers, students, staff, and the school itself-and thoroughly review consultation processes and outcomes for a contemporary practice-oriented approach suited to the new consultant, trainee, or researcher.

Key features of the Third Edition include:

  • An integrated mental health/behavioral model for school consultation.
  • An organizational study of the school as a setting for consultation.
  • Assessment issues and strategies particularly relevant to school consultation.
  • Approaches to providing teachers with implementation support.
  • Conceptual models for selecting academic and behavioral interventions.
  • Administrative perspectives on school consultation.
  • A real, transcribed case study analyzed by the authors.

In the tradition of its predecessors, School Consultation, Third Edition, is a confidence-building tool for practitioners in school psychology, clinical child psychology, educational specialties, school counseling, special education, and school social work as well as a trusted reference for researchers in these fields.

From the reviews of the third edition:

"Psychologists have become essential consultants in the school system and, although programs have taken root to train behavioral health professionals to work in the school system, this book provides a different approach to effectively administering that role. The intention is to instruct novice psychologists in the art and science of the unique consultant role they will play in the school system. ... intended mainly for school and child clinical psychologists, but also for other clinical or developmental psychologists, school social workers, and special educators." (Christopher J. Graver, Doody's Review Service, September, 2010)

Background
Introduction to Consultationp. 3
The Effectiveness of Human Services Consultationp. 5
Historical Influences on the Human Services Consultant Rolep. 6
Theoretical Issuesp. 6
Professional Issuesp. 7
Pragmatic Issuesp. 8
Historical Influences on the School Consultant Rolep. 9
Developments from the 1940s Through the 1970sp. 9
Developments During the 1980s and 1990sp. 10
Contemporary Developmentsp. 11
Reconceptualizing Consultation for Today's Schoolsp. 12
Historical Summaryp. 12
Our Definition of School Consultationp. 12
Assumptions of Our Approach to School Consultationp. 13
Topics Not Addressed in Our Approach to School Consultationp. 14
The Rest of the Bookp. 15
Problem Solving and Response to Interventionp. 17
Establishing a Context for RTI and the Modern Practice of School Consultationp. 18
Prevention as a Philosophical Influencep. 18
NCLB and IDEIA 2004 as Legislative Influencesp. 19
Empirical Influencesp. 20
Problem Solvingp. 21
What is Problem Solving?p. 21
Problem-Solving Teamsp. 22
RTIp. 24
What is RTI?p. 24
RTI Systems of Implementationp. 24
Tier-Based Service Delivery Within RTIp. 25
Assessment and Intervention Methods Within RTIp. 28
Conclusionp. 29
Promoting Change in Schoolsp. 31
Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors Within Consultationp. 31
The Need for Consultee Changep. 31
Helping the Consultee to Changep. 33
Collaboration: What Is It?p. 33
Should Consultants Influence Consultees and the Process of Consultation?p. 34
Relevance of These Five Studies for School Consultantsp. 38
A Clarification of Our Positionp. 39
Are There Ethical Questions and Issues of Professional Dissonance Regarding the Use of Influence in Consultation?p. 39
If It Is Not a Collaborative Relationship, Then What Is It?p. 40
The Egalitarian Virusp. 41
General Strategies for Effecting Changes in Human Systemsp. 41
Empirical-Rational Approachp. 42
Normative-Reeducative Approachp. 42
Power-Coercive Approachp. 42
Relevance of Chin and Benne's Strategies for School Consultantsp. 43
The Bases of Social Power and Their Application to School Consultationp. 43
An Introduction to Social Power Bases and Social Influencep. 43
Coercive Power and Reward Power: Impersonal Formsp. 45
Coercive and Rewind Power: Personal Formsp. 47
Legitimate Power: Position, Reciprocity, Equity, and Responsibility-Dependencep. 48
Expert Power and Referent Power: Positive Formsp. 49
The Expert-Referent Power Dilemmap. 50
Expert and Referent Power: Negative Formsp. 50
Informational Power: Direct and Indirect Formsp. 51
Empirical Studies of Raven's (1992, 1993) Social Power Bases Applied to School Consultationp. 52
Relevance of Social Power Base Research Studies for School Consultantsp. 54
Other Means of Influencep. 54
Invoking or Reducing the Power of Third Partiesp. 54
Preparatory Devices: Setting the Stage for Social Influencep. 55
The Mode of Influencep. 57
A Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence and Its Application to School Consultationp. 57
The Motivation to Influencep. 57
Assessment of Available Power Basesp. 59
Assessment of the Available Bases in Relation to Target, Power, Preferences, and Inhibitionsp. 59
Preparing for the Influence Attemptp. 59
Choice of Power Bases and Mode in Influence Attemptsp. 60
Assessing the Effects of Influencep. 60
Conclusionp. 60
Notesp. 61
The School as a Setting for Consultationp. 63
Organizational Traditions in the Public School Systemp. 64
Classical Organizational Theoryp. 64
The Human Relations Movementp. 66
Organizational Behavior Theoryp. 70
The Service Structure of Public Schoolsp. 71
Available Servicesp. 71
The Refer-Test-Place Sequencep. 74
The Role of Consultationp. 76
School Consultation from an Administrative Perspectivep. 76
Factors Influencing the Use of Consultation Servicesp. 76
The Three Paradoxes of School Consultationp. 78
Consultation Processes and Outcomes
Bases of an Integrated Model of School Consultationp. 83
Community Mental Health and Mental Health Consultation Basesp. 83
Population-Oriented Preventive Modelp. 84
Crisis Modelp. 85
Support Systems Modelp. 86
Caplan's Model of Mental Health Consultationp. 86
How the Mental Health Consultant Offers Support to Consulteesp. 90
Behavioral Psychology and Behavioral Consultation Basesp. 91
Problem-Solving Modelp. 91
Application of Behavior Modification in Natural Settingsp. 92
Bergan's Model of Behavioral Consultationp. 92
Interpersonal Influence and Social Power Basesp. 96
Summary of the Bases of an Integrated Model of School Consultationp. 97
Achieving Entry in School Consultation: Entering the Service Delivery Networkp. 97
Assessing the School as an Organization: Some General Considerationsp. 98
Negotiating the Contractp. 100
Achieving School-Level (Physical) Entryp. 101
Achieving Classroom-Level (Psychological) Entryp. 102
Model Description and Applicationp. 105
A Critical Appraisal of Consultation Modelsp. 105
Mental Health Consultationp. 105
Behavioral Consultationp. 107
The Consultative Relationshipp. 110
An Integrated Model of School Consultationp. 110
Precursors to School Consultationp. 113
The Problem-Solving Taskp. 115
The Social Influence Taskp. 117
The Support and Development Taskp. 120
Outcomes of School Consultationp. 124
Assessment in School Consultationp. 127
Functional Behavior Assessmentp. 129
Indirect Assessment Phasep. 131
Direct Assessment Phasep. 132
Systematic Formative Evaluationp. 134
Brief Experimental Analysisp. 136
Selecting Effective School-Based Interventionsp. 141
Effectiveness of Intervention Alternativesp. 142
Results from Meta-Analytic Reviewsp. 142
The Role of ABA in School-Based Interventionp. 143
Conceptual Models of Children's Learning and Behavior Problemsp. 144
Academic Intervention Modelsp. 144
Behavioral Intervention Modelsp. 147
Limitations of ABA Approaches to School-Based Interventionp. 151
Implementation Issuesp. 151
Conceptual Relevancep. 152
Treatment Strengthp. 153
Treatment Acceptabilityp. 153
Treatment Integrityp. 154
Key Participants in Consultation
Teachers as Consulteesp. 159
Perspectives on Teachers and Teachingp. 159
The Complexity of Classroom Teachingp. 159
The Rewards of Teachingp. 161
Major Challenges Facing Teachers Todayp. 162
Teacher Recruitment, Attrition, and Retentionp. 164
Implications for the School Consultantp. 164
Perspectives on Teachers and School Consultationp. 165
Three Views on Why Teachers Seek Consultationp. 165
Teacher Expectations for Consultationp. 167
What Teachers Do Before Seeking Consultationp. 169
Factors that Distinguish Teachers Who Participate in Consultation from Those Who Do Notp. 170
Increasing the Effectiveness of Consultation with Teachersp. 171
Adapting Consultation to the Teacher's Schedule: The 15-Min Consultationp. 171
Consulting as Part of a Prereferral Intervention/Problem-Solving Teamp. 172
Increasing Knowledge/Skill Transfer and Maintenancep. 174
Providing Consultative Support to Teachersp. 176
Students as Clientsp. 177
Legislation Governing Service Delivery in the Schoolsp. 178
Educational Approaches to Classificationp. 180
Rationale for Classifying Special Needs Studentsp. 181
Overview of Childhood Disabilitiesp. 182
Students Classified as Learning Disabledp. 185
Students Classified as Emotionally Disturbedp. 187
A Contextual Model of Student Achievementp. 189
Variables Limiting Individualized Instructionp. 189
Variables Related to Student Achievementp. 190
Consultation Case Studyp. 193
Problem Identification Interview: February 18p. 194
An Analysis of the First Interviewp. 202
Problem Analysis Interview: March 4p. 204
An Analysis of the Second Interviewp. 212
Problem Evaluation Interview: April 9p. 214
Child Measuresp. 214
Teacher/Consultation Case Measuresp. 215
Conclusionp. 215
Epilog: The Effective Practice of School Consultationp. 217
Referencesp. 221
Author Indexp. 245
Subject Indexp. 253
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781441957467
ISBN-10: 1441957464
Series: Issues in Clinical Child Psychology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 258
Published: 18th March 2010
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.57
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised