At the beginning of the twelfth century a group of scholars, mainly centred on Paris and Bologna, began an enterprise of unprecedented scope. Their intention was to produce a once-and-for-all body of knowledge that would be as perfect as humanity's fallen state permits, and which would provide a view of God, nature, and human conduct, promoting order in this world and blessedness in the next. Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe reconsiders this enterprise, and its long-term effects on European History. It describes the creative intellectual impulse that brought it into being and sustained it for two centuries, and shows how it was able to bring into existence a systematic body of knowledge of the natural and supernatural worlds, including the whole area of human relations, which together embraced all areas of possible truth and defined the conduct required of all members of western Christendom.The whole work will be in three volumes. This first is concerned with the beginnings, in the years between 1060 and 1160, when the main lines of scholastic thought were laid down and its agenda established.
It examines the intellectual principles of enquiry and the sources used in developing the whole field of assured knowledge. It seeks to provide an understanding of the new outlook on the world, the supernatural and an organized Christian society, and to show why this proved so powerful and so attractive to the time. The book explores the social, intellectual, and political developments that provided the conditions to create the new system in the great schools of learning in France and Italy, and the rewards that attracted experts who could both administer the system and make it known and acceptable to the generality of people whose lives were affected by it. Elegantly written, enlivened with wit and vivid anecdote, Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe will be a work of seminal importance for the understanding of the civilization of the Middle Ages, and of the evolution of modern European societies.
"Here the 'practical, intellectual and spiritual aspects' of
twelfth-century history are discussed by a historian whose
knowledge of the period and mastery of the art of writing are
almost without equal." History Today
"The combination of synthesis with fresh and vivid work on
detail is one of Southern's particular gifts ...The proportions of
the book will fit harmoniously into the overarching structure
outlined at the start of the book, but this volume can also stand
just as well on its own - already a classic." Reviews in
"The recovery of scholasticism therefore calls for two
qualities: technical expertise, and lucidity of thought and
expression. No historian combines these qualities more
conspicuously than R.W. Southern." Times Literary
"This book is more than a synthesis of a life's work on
twelfth-century Western culture by Britain's greatest medievalist -
it is the most important book in recent decades on the
twelfth-century renaissance and its significance. This is a book to
be treasured and reflected upon for years to come." Norman F.
Cantor, New York University
"That such a sweeping vision is expressed so lucidly, while
simultaneously conveying the human details and experience of the
period with a combination of sensitivity and scholarly rigour,
justifies the description by its first reviewers: 'masterpiece.'"
Journal of Ecclesiastical History
List of Maps and Plates.
Abbreviations and Short Titles.
Two Preliminary Maps.
PART ONE ? AIMS, METHODS, AND ENVIRONMENT.
1 Scholastic Humanism.
I Contrasting types of humanism.
II Characteristic features of scholastic humanism.
III The problem of the natural sciences.
IV Summits of success.
V The regulation of social life.
VI The loss of hope.
2 Chartrian Humanism: A Romantic Misconception.
II Humanism and the School of Chartres.
III Replies to critics.
3 The Sovereign Textbook of the Schools: The Bible.
I The qualities of the Bible in scholastic thought.
II Methods of investigation.
III Bringing the message of the schools to the world.
4 Social and Political Roots of Scholastic Thought.
I Pre-scholastic and scholastic Europe.
II The new symbiosis of schools and government.
III The schools, society and the individual.
IV The schools and the papacy.
5 The Men and their Rewards.
I Scholars of the world.
II Ancients and Moderns.
III The new age.
IV The glory and gossip of the schools.
6 The Scholastic Metropolis of Northern Europe.
I Old institutions: new needs.
II Stages in the triumph of Paris.
IV Appendix ? A schedule of Parisian masters.
PART TWO ? TURNING DOCTRINE INTO LAW.
7 The Outlook in Northern Europe.
I Truth and truth-enforcement.
II Law and society in northern Europe.
III Summits of northern European legal scholarship, c.
IV Federalism v. centralization.
8 The Outlook in Northern Italy.
I Cultural potentialities and limitations.
II Irnerius and the menace of Roman law.
9 The Integration of Doctrine and Law: Gratian.
I Demand and response.
II The man and his work.
III The originality of his work.
IV Method of work and date of compilation.
V Gratian?s change of mind about Roman law.
VI The personality behind the work.
VII Did Gratian teach canon law?
VIII The first masterpiece of scholastic humanism.
IX Time and Place reviewed.