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Scattering in Polymeric and Colloidal Systems - Wyn Brown

Scattering in Polymeric and Colloidal Systems

By: Wyn Brown (Editor), Kell Mortensen (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 8th August 2000
ISBN: 9789056992606
Number Of Pages: 496

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The application of selected scattering methods, in particular light and neutron scattering, to complex polymeric and colloidal systems is discussed. Progress in this area of condensed matter is charted and the book provides insight into the theory and practice of the techniques apploed to a number of diverse problems.

Prefacep. xvii
Contributorsp. xxi
Multiple Scattering of Light: Coherent Backscattering and Transmissionp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Light Propagation in Single and Multiple Scattering Samplesp. 6
The Diffusion Approximationp. 8
Cross-over from Single to Multiple Scatteringp. 10
Influence of a Boundaryp. 12
Transmission Geometryp. 15
Time-resolved Transmission Experimentsp. 19
Frequency-dependent Speckle Correlationsp. 21
Diffuse Photon-density Wavesp. 24
Coherent Backscattering of Lightp. 25
Theory of Coherent Backscatteringp. 28
Monte-Carlo Simulationsp. 42
Experimental Setup of CBp. 44
Examples of CB-conesp. 48
Appendix A: Transport Mean Free Path l*p. 58
Appendix B: Proof of Equations (57) and (58)p. 60
Appendix C: Monte-Carlo Simulationsp. 62
Appendix D: Divergent or Convergent Light Sourcep. 64
Appendix E: Strongly Inclined Samples and Refraction at the Surfacep. 66
Glossary of Symbolsp. 68
Referencesp. 69
Thermal-Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scatteringp. 75
Introductionp. 76
Phenomenological Modelp. 78
The Transport Coefficientsp. 78
Writing of the Gratingp. 80
Detectionp. 81
Experimental Aspectsp. 83
Setupp. 83
Sample Preparationp. 86
Size of the Effectp. 86
Convection and Flowp. 87
Liquid Mixturesp. 88
Polymer Solutionsp. 92
Treatment of Polydispersityp. 92
Averages of the Transport Coefficientsp. 93
Molar Mass Distribution and Averagesp. 94
Experimental Determination of the Transport Coefficientsp. 97
Broad Molar Mass Distributionsp. 102
Semidilute and Concentrated Solutionsp. 105
Stochastic TDFRSp. 105
Conclusionsp. 110
Acknowledgementsp. 111
Glossary of Symbolsp. 111
Referencesp. 113
Light Scattering from Ionomer Solutionsp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Ionomer Solutionsp. 117
Light Scattering Techniquesp. 119
Ionomers in Polar Solvents (Polyelectrolyte Behaviour)p. 120
Introductionp. 120
Static Light Scatteringp. 121
Dynamic Light Scatteringp. 132
Ionomers in Non-polar Solvents (Aggregation Behaviour)p. 140
Introductionp. 140
Static Light Scatteringp. 142
Dynamic Light Scatteringp. 144
Conclusionsp. 146
Acknowledgementsp. 146
Glossary of Symbolsp. 146
Referencesp. 148
Light Scattering from Ternary Polymer Solutionsp. 151
Introductionp. 151
Theoretical Backgroundp. 153
Phenomenological Basisp. 153
Thermodynamics and Static Informationp. 155
Dynamics and Diffusion Coefficientsp. 158
Hydrodynamic Fluctuations and Initial Spinodal Decompositionp. 160
Selected Experimental Results and Discussionp. 163
Thermodynamics and Static Information from SLSp. 163
Dynamic and Static Information from DLSp. 171
The Case of Coils in Solutions with Rodlike Polymersp. 183
Conclusionsp. 191
Acknowledgementsp. 191
Glossary of Symbolsp. 191
Referencesp. 193
Dynamic Scattering from Semiflexible Polymersp. 197
Introductionp. 198
Wormlike Chain Modelp. 201
Static Structure Factorp. 206
Critical Comment on Gaussian Modelsp. 208
Dynamics of Semiflexible Polymers in Solutionp. 211
Brief Survey of the Historyp. 211
Introduction of the Equation of Motionp. 213
Linear Mode Analysisp. 217
Entanglement Effectsp. 220
Dynamic Structure Factorp. 225
Definitionsp. 225
Initial Decay (t [double less-than sign] [tau subscript q])p. 228
Initial Slope from the Smoluchowski Equationp. 231
Stretched Exponential Decay (t [double greater-than sign] [tau subscript q])p. 234
Entanglement Effectsp. 235
Polydispersity and Clustersp. 236
Applications to Biopolymersp. 239
Conclusionsp. 242
Acknowledgementsp. 242
Glossary of Symbolsp. 242
Referencesp. 244
Microemulsions Studied by Scattering Techniquesp. 249
Introductionp. 250
Microemulsionsp. 251
Formation of Microemulsionsp. 252
Phase Behaviourp. 254
Microstructurep. 258
Experimental Methodsp. 267
General Advantages and Disadvantages of Scattering Techniquesp. 267
Scattering of Electromagnetic Wavesp. 268
The Basic Theory of the Scattering Intensityp. 269
Interference Effects, Interactions and Structure Factorp. 273
Static Light Scattering from Hard Spheresp. 275
Attractive Particle Interactions and Clusteringp. 279
Static Light Scattering from Non-spherical Particlesp. 282
Static Light Scattering from L[subscript 3]-Phasesp. 284
Optical Matchingp. 285
Dynamic Light Scatteringp. 288
The Techniquep. 288
Data Evaluationp. 291
The Concentration Dependence of D[subscript c]p. 292
Experimental Studies on Non-attractive Droplet Microemulsionsp. 295
Attractive Interactions, Percolating Systems and Phase Transitionsp. 298
Microemulsions Containing Networksp. 300
Practical Aspects of Scattering with Microemulsionsp. 301
Small Angle Neutron and X-ray Scatteringp. 303
Interaction Between Matter and X-ray or Neutron Radiationp. 303
Contrast Variationp. 305
Indirect Fourier Transformationp. 307
Scattering from Micellesp. 308
Micellar Form Factorsp. 309
Inter Micellar Interactionp. 310
Swollen Lamellar Phasesp. 311
Bicontinuous Microemulsionsp. 313
Acknowledgementsp. 315
Glossary of Symbolsp. 315
Referencesp. 318
Critical Behaviour in Polymer Blend Solutionsp. 327
Introductionp. 328
Critical Behaviour of Fluidsp. 328
Critical Behaviour of Polymeric Systemsp. 330
Theoretical Backgroundsp. 332
Static Crossover of Critical Behaviour--Mean-field, Ising, and Fisher's Renormalized Ising Behavioursp. 332
The Ginzburg Number Gi and Universal Crossover Functionp. 332
Gi[superscript BK](bare) for Polymer Blend Solutions Evaluated with a Blob Modelp. 332
Fisher's Renormalized Ising Behaviourp. 335
Dynamic Crossover of Critical Behaviour--Diffusive Process and Hydrodynamic Mode--Mode Coupling Processp. 336
Mode-coupling Theory and the Dynamic Crossover Number [varepsilon]*p. 336
Concentration Fluctuations in Polymer Blend Solutions and the Dynamic-crossover Number [varepsilon]* Evaluated with a Blob Modelp. 339
Symmetrical Polymer Blend Solutionsp. 341
Static Critical Behaviour--Crossover from the Mean-field to Ising Behaviourp. 342
Static Light Scatteringp. 342
Experimental Results and Discussionp. 344
Dynamic Critical Behaviour--Crossover from Diffusive to Hydrodynamic Behaviourp. 348
Dynamic Light Scatteringp. 348
Experimental Results and Discussionp. 350
Asymmetrical Polymer Blend Solutions--Molecular-weight Asymmetry and Solvent-quality Asymmetryp. 354
Static Critical Behaviour--Crossover from Ising to Fisher's Renormalized Behaviourp. 356
Dynamic Critical Behaviour--Effects of the System-asymmetry on Critical Dynamicsp. 358
Conclusionsp. 363
Glossary of Symbolsp. 364
Referencesp. 367
Thermal Composition Fluctuations in Polymer Blends Studied with Small Angle Neutron Scatteringp. 371
Introductionp. 372
Theoretical Backgroundp. 373
Susceptibilityp. 374
Crossover Function and Ginzburg Criterionp. 375
Flory--Huggins Theoryp. 375
Structure Factor S(Q): RPA; Ornstein--Zernikep. 377
Length Scales in Polymer Blendsp. 377
The Effect of Compressibilityp. 379
Scattering Contrast in Neutron Scatteringp. 379
Thermodynamic Parameters Determined from the Structure Factorp. 381
Structure Factor S(Q)p. 381
Susceptibility in One-phase Regionp. 381
Ginzburg Numberp. 383
Flory--Huggins Parameter and Phase Diagramp. 385
Spinodal and Binodalp. 386
Effect of Polydispersityp. 387
Characteristic Lengths in Polymer Blendsp. 390
The A, A* Parameters and the Radius of Gyration R[subscript g]p. 390
The A Parameter in the Critical Range and the Correlation lengthp. 392
Structure Factor S(Q) in the Two-phase Regimep. 392
Mixed State during the Early Stage of Spinodal Decompositionp. 393
Decomposed in Domains of Equilibrium Compositionp. 395
External Fieldsp. 396
Pressurep. 397
Shearp. 401
Polymer Blends with Additives of a Good Solvent and a Diblock Copolymerp. 403
Low Molecular Weight Solventsp. 403
Addition of a Diblock Copolymerp. 404
Summaryp. 408
Appendixp. 409
Acknowledgementsp. 409
Glossary of Symbolsp. 409
Referencesp. 410
Block Copolymers Studied with Small Angle Neutron Scatteringp. 413
Introductionp. 414
Experimentalp. 416
Interaction Between Matter and X-ray/Neutron Radiationp. 417
Scattering Amplitude and Intensityp. 418
Auxiliary Instrumentation in Scattering Experimentsp. 420
Disordered Block Copolymer Meltsp. 421
Concentration Fluctuations in the Mean-field Approximationp. 423
Effect of Polydispersityp. 428
Fluctuation Effectsp. 429
Peak Position q*, and Polymer Radius of Gyration, R[subscript g]p. 431
N-Scaling of Peak-value q*p. 433
Gaussian Regimep. 433
Weak Segregationp. 434
Strong Segregationp. 434
Direct Measurement of Polymer Sizep. 434
Order--Disorder Transition and Microphase Separationp. 436
Leibler Theoryp. 436
Micellar Precursorp. 437
Fluctuation Effects on the Order--Disorder Transitionp. 438
Order--Disorder Transition Dependence of Pressurep. 440
Order--Disorder Transition Dependence on Shearp. 442
Ordered Phasesp. 444
Conformational Asymmetryp. 446
Thermodynamically Stable Ordered Structuresp. 446
Epitaxyp. 450
Conclusionsp. 451
Acknowledgementsp. 451
Glossary of Symbolsp. 451
Referencesp. 453
Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Experimentsp. 457
Introductionp. 458
Instrumentation for SAXS/WAXS Experimentsp. 462
X-ray Sources, Detectors and Data-analysisp. 462
Rotating Anode X-ray Generatorp. 462
Synchrotron Radiation Beamlinesp. 462
Position Sensitive Detectorsp. 465
Normalisationp. 467
Data Analysisp. 467
Data Collection Strategyp. 469
Isotropic Scatterersp. 470
Anisotropic Scatterersp. 472
Instrumental Limitationsp. 472
Time Resolutionp. 472
Accessible Scattering Vector Rangep. 477
Sample Environmentsp. 478
Determining the Limiting Parametersp. 478
Examplesp. 481
Examples of Isotropically Scattering Systemsp. 481
Isotactic Polypropylenep. 481
Heat Treatment of Cordierite Glassp. 485
Examples of Anisotropically Scattering Systemsp. 487
Examples of Combinations with Other Techniquesp. 489
Conclusionsp. 490
Acknowledgementsp. 490
Glossary of Symbolsp. 491
Referencesp. 491
Polymer Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films Studied by X-ray and Neutron Reflectometryp. 495
Introductionp. 496
The Contrast between Componentsp. 497
The Reflection of X-rays and Neutronsp. 498
Sample Preparationp. 504
Instrumentationp. 505
Advantages and Limitations of the Techniquep. 506
Surface Roughness and Structures in Thin Filmsp. 507
Interface Roughnessp. 507
Structure in Thin Filmsp. 508
Capillary Waves and Correlated Roughness between Different Interfacesp. 510
Dewetting and Demixing in Thin Polymer Filmsp. 513
Conformation and Dynamics of Polymers at Interfacesp. 516
Interfaces between Incompatible Polymersp. 518
Theoretical Aspectsp. 520
Interfaces between Polystyrene (PS)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)p. 522
PS/poly(styrene-stat-para bromo styrene) (PBr[subscript x]S)p. 525
Correlation between Interface Width and Adhesionp. 526
Interdiffusion at the Interface between Compatible Polymersp. 528
Initial Stages of Segment Diffusion at the Interfacep. 528
Influence of Chain Mobility on Segment Diffusionp. 529
Conclusionp. 530
Acknowledgementsp. 530
Glossary of Symbolsp. 531
Referencesp. 531
Polymer Dynamics by Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopyp. 535
Introductionp. 535
Quasielastic Neutron Scatteringp. 537
Principles of the Methodp. 537
Neutron Spin Echo Techniquep. 540
Neutron Spin Manipulations with Magnetic Fieldsp. 540
The Spin Echo Spectrometerp. 542
Local Relaxation Processesp. 544
Dynamic Structure Factorp. 545
Results on Polybutadienep. 547
Entropy Driven Dynamics--The Rouse Regimep. 550
Entropic Forces--The Rouse Modelp. 550
Dynamic Structure Factors for the Rouse Modelp. 552
Neutron Spin Echo Results at PDMS Meltsp. 554
Onset of Entanglementsp. 559
Long Chains--Reptationp. 563
Summaryp. 571
Glossary of Symbolsp. 572
Referencesp. 573
Indexp. 577
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789056992606
ISBN-10: 9056992600
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 496
Published: 8th August 2000
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 16.51  x 5.08
Weight (kg): 1.19
Edition Number: 1

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