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Scanning Probe Lithography : Microsystems - Hyongsok T. Soh

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Published: 30th June 2001
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Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL) describes recent advances in the field of scanning probe lithography, a high resolution patterning technique that uses a sharp tip in close proximity to a sample to pattern nanometer-scale features on the sample. SPL is capable of patterning sub-30nm features with nanometer-scale alignment registration. It is a relatively simple, inexpensive, reliable method for patterning nanometer-scale features on various substrates. It has potential applications for nanometer-scale research, for maskless semiconductor lithography, and for photomask patterning.
The authors of this book have been key players in this exciting new field. Calvin Quate has been involved since the beginning in the early 1980s and leads the research time that is regarded as the foremost group in this field. Hyongsok Tom Soh and Kathryn Wilder Guarini have been the members of this group who, in the last few years, have brought about remarkable series of advances in SPM lithography. Some of these advances have been in the control of the tip which has allowed the scanning speed to be increased from mum/second to mm/second. Both non-contact and in-contact writing have been demonstrated as has controlled writing of sub-100 nm lines over large steps on the substrate surface. The engineering of a custom-designed MOSFET built into each microcantilever for individual current control is another notable achievement. Micromachined arrays of probes each with individual control have been demonstrated. One of the most intriguing new aspects is the use of directly-grown carbon nanotubes as robust, high-resolution emitters.
In this book the authors concisely and authoritatively describe the historical context, the relevant inventions, and the prospects for eventual manufacturing use of this exciting new technology.

List of Figuresp. ix
List of Tablesp. xv
Glossaryp. xvii
Forewordp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
Acknowledgmentsp. xxiii
Introduction to Scanning Probe Lithographyp. 1
The Scanning Probe Microscopep. 1
The Scanning Tunneling Microscopep. 2
The Atomic Force Microscopep. 3
Innovations Through Integrationp. 4
High-Resolution Patterning Using Scanning Probesp. 6
Mechanical and Thermomechanical Patterningp. 7
Local Oxidationp. 8
Electron Exposure of Resistp. 9
Semiconductor Lithographyp. 9
Book Overviewp. 15
Referencesp. 16
SPL by Electric-Field-Enhanced Oxidationp. 23
Field-Enhanced Oxidation of Siliconp. 23
Amorphous Silicon as a Resist Materialp. 24
Fabrication of a 100 nm nMOSFETp. 26
Results and Discussionp. 32
Referencesp. 34
Resist Exposure Using Field-Emitted Electronsp. 37
Field-Emitted Electron Exposurep. 37
Current-Controlled Exposures in Contact Modep. 48
Current-Controlled Exposures in Noncontact Modep. 60
Patterning in the Noncontact Modep. 62
Line Width Controlp. 65
Comparison of Contact and Noncontact Mode Resultsp. 66
Summary of Noncontact Mode SPLp. 67
Simulations of Electron Field Emission and Electron Trajectoriesp. 67
Initial Beam Size in the Contact Configurationp. 68
Comparison of Contact and Noncontact Configurationsp. 71
Beam Spreadingp. 75
Summary of Simulation Resultsp. 75
Referencesp. 77
SPL Linewidth Controlp. 81
Exposure Tools and Samplesp. 81
Sensitivity and Exposure Latitudep. 84
Energy Density Distribution in the Resistp. 85
Patterning Linearity Using a Pixel Writing Schemep. 88
Proximity Effectsp. 91
Exposure Mechanisms of High- and Low-Energy Electronsp. 97
Summaryp. 99
Referencesp. 99
Critical Dimension Patterning Using SPLp. 103
100 nm pMOSFET Device Fabricationp. 103
Gate Level Lithography Using SPLp. 105
Overlay Registrationp. 106
Patterning Over Topographyp. 106
PMOSFET Device Characteristicsp. 110
Summary of "Mix and Match" Lithographyp. 112
Referencesp. 112
High Speed Resist Exposure With a Single Tipp. 115
High Speed Patterning of Siloxane SOGp. 115
Mechanism of Exposurep. 115
Experimental Procedurep. 117
Results of SOG Patterningp. 118
Discussionp. 119
Current-Controlled SPL at High Speedsp. 119
Control of the Tip-Sample Force or Spacing at High Speedsp. 120
Control of the Emission Current at High Speedsp. 121
High Speed Lithographyp. 125
Summary of High Speed SPL Using a Single Tipp. 126
Referencesp. 129
On-Chip Lithography Controlp. 131
Background and Motivationp. 131
MOSFET Design Considerationsp. 132
Saturation Currentp. 134
Threshold Voltagep. 134
Junction Breakdownp. 135
Off Currentp. 136
Switching Speedp. 137
Cantilever and Tip Design Parametersp. 138
Fabrication Processp. 140
Tip Formation and Cantilever Definitionp. 142
Front-End Transistor Fabricationp. 143
Back-End Transistor Fabricationp. 144
Cantilever Releasep. 144
Device Characteristicsp. 146
Lithography with Integrated Transistor for Exposure Dose Controlp. 148
Summaryp. 150
Referencesp. 151
Scanning Probe Tips for SPLp. 153
Silicon and Metal-Coated Tipsp. 153
Post-Processed Silicon Tipsp. 155
Carbon Nanotubes as Scanning Probe Tipsp. 156
Direct Synthesis on Silicon Pyramidal Tipsp. 157
Referencesp. 160
Scanning Probe Arrays for Lithographyp. 163
Current-Controlled Lithography With Two Tipsp. 163
High-Voltage Current Preamplifierp. 164
Independent Parallel Lithographyp. 166
Summary of Progress on Parallel Lithographyp. 167
Massively Parallel Arrays for Lithographyp. 167
Exposure Time for Different Size Arraysp. 168
SPL Throughput Using Cantilever Arraysp. 170
Integrated Current Control for Arraysp. 172
Two Dimensional Arrays: Process Developmentp. 173
Enabling Technologiesp. 173
Anisotropic Through Wafer Etchingp. 174
Through-Wafer Via Processp. 175
Two Dimensional Arrays: Integrationp. 178
Introduction to the Piezoresistive Cantileverp. 178
Design and Modelingp. 178
Processingp. 181
Imaging With the 2D Arrayp. 187
Referencesp. 188
Epilogp. 191
List of Publicationsp. 193
Indexp. 197
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792373612
ISBN-10: 0792373618
Series: Microsystems
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 197
Published: 30th June 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 1.1