Copy the following link for free access to the first chapter of this title: http: //www.springerlink.com/content/j23468h304310755/fulltext.pdf
This book is a warning. It aims to warn policy-makers, industry, academia, civil society organisations, the media and the public about the threats and vulnerabilities facing our privacy, identity, trust, security and inclusion in the rapidly approaching world of ambient intelligence (AmI).
In the near future, every manufactured product - our clothes, money, appliances, the paint on our walls, the carpets on our floors, our cars, everything - will be embedded with intelligence, networks of tiny sensors and actuators, which some have termed "smart dust." The AmI world is not far off. We already have surveillance systems, biometrics, personal communicators, machine learning and more. AmI will provide personalised services - and know more about us - on a scale dwarfing anything hitherto available.
In the AmI vision, ubiquitous computing, communications and interfaces converge and adapt to the user. AmI promises greater user-friendliness in an environment capable of recognising and responding to the presence of different individuals in a seamless, unobtrusive and often invisible way. While most stakeholders paint the promise of AmI in sunny colours, there is a dark side to AmI.
This book aims to illustrate the threats and vulnerabilities by means of four "dark scenarios." The authors set out a structured methodology for analysing the four scenarios, and then identify safeguards to counter the foreseen threats and vulnerabilities. They make recommendations to policy-makers and other stakeholders about what they can do to maximise the benefits from ambient intelligence and minimise the negative consequences.
From the reviews:
"The book provides an overview of the state of the art as it impacts the most important social, legal, economic, technological, and ethical implications of the technology with regard to identity, privacy, and security. ... The book succeeds in collecting many facts, concepts, insights, and ideas on many issues crucial for the future development of ambient intelligence (ubiquitous computing). Reading it will be no waste of time for anyone involved in--or just interested in--this new paradigm." (P. Navrat, ACM Computing Reviews, January, 2009)
"It provides an elaborate overview on the different kinds of enabling technologies that can be considered AmI and a useful inventory of the visions of AmI as reflected in other projects (both EU sponsored, as American and Japanese projects), the different tools that can be developed in order to bring these vision into reality and the most important players worldwide. ... provide a good starting point for ethicists who would like to take up this challenge." (Neelke Doorn, Science and Engineering Ethics, Vol. 15, 2009)
"In this book, 15 researchers from the European Union investigate the threats, risks, and safeguards of ambient intelligence (AmI), a synonym for what is referred to as ubiquitous or pervasive computing in the US or ubiquitous networking in Japan. It offers a framework for thinking about new technological developments and the regulative context that may need to be put into place. ... It will raise your awareness of things that you can do by thinking globally, but acting in your local context." (Goran Trajkovski, ACM Computing Reviews, October, 2010)
Foreword by Emile Aarts Foreword by Gary T. Marx Acknowledgements Preface An Executive Summary for Hasty Readers 1 Introduction 1.1 From ubiquitous computing to ambient intelligence 1.2 Challenges from the deployment of ambient intelligence 1.3 Challenges from ambient intelligence for EUpolicy-making 1.4 The challenges of this book 2 The brave new world of ambient intelligence 2.1 Enabling technologies 2.1.1 Ubiquitous computing 2.1.2 Ubiquitous communications 2.1.3 User-friendly interfaces 2.1.4 mbedded intelligence 2.1.5 Sensors and actuators 2.2 AmI visions 2.3 Scenarios 2.4 Roadmaps 2.5 Strategic research agendas 2.6 Platforms 2.7 Projects 2.8 Prospects 3 Dark scenarios 3.1 Creating and analysing dark scenarios 3.1.1 Framing the scenario 3.1.2 Identifying the technologies and/or devices 3.1.3 Identifying the applications 3.1.4 Drivers 3.1.5 Issues 3.1.6 Legal synopsis 3.1.7 Conclusions 3.2 Scenario 1: The AmI family 3.2.1 The scenario script 3.2.2 Analysis 3.2.3 The context 3.2.4 AmI technologies and devices 3.2.5 AmI applications 3.2.6 Drivers 3.2.7 Issues 3.2.8 Legal synopsis 3.2.9 Conclusions 3.3 Scenario 2: A crash in AmI space 3.3.1 The scenario script 3.3.2 Analysis 3.3.3 The context 3.3.4 AmI technologies and devices 3.3.5 AmI applications 3.3.6 Drivers 3.3.7 Issues 3.3.8 Legal synopsis 3.3.9 Conclusions 3.4 Scenario 3: What's an AmI data aggregator to do? 3.4.1 The scenario script 3.4.2 Analysis 3.4.3 The context 3.4.4 AmI technologies and devices 3.4.5 AmI applications 3.4.6 Drivers 3.4.7 Issues 3.4.8 Legal synopsis 3.4.9 Conclusions 3.5 Scenario 4: An early morning TV programme reports on AmI 3.5.1 The scenario script 3.5.2 Analysis 3.5.3 The context 3.5.4 AmI technologies and devices 3.5.5 Applications 3.5.6 Drivers 3.5.7 Issues Contents 3.5.8 Legal synopsis 3.5.9 Conclusions 4 Threats and vulnerabilities 4.1 Privacy under attack 4.2 Identity: Who goes there? 4.3 Can I trust you? 4.4 An insecure world 4.5 The looming digital divide 4.6 Threats today and tomorrow too 4.6.1 Hackers and malware 4.6.2 Identity theft 4.6.3 Penetration of identity management systems 4.6.4 Function creep 4.6.5 Exploitation of linkages by industry and government 4.6.6 Surveillance 4.6.7 Profiling 4.6.8 Authentication may intrude upon privacy 4.7 Lots of vulnerabilities 4.7.1 System complexity, false positives and unpredictable failures 4.7.2 Lack of user-friendly security and configuration software 4.7.3 Personal devices: networking with limited resources 4.7.4 Lack of transparency 4.7.5 High update and maintenance costs 4.7.6 Uncertainties about what to protect and the costs of protection 4.7.7 Misplaced trust in security mechanisms 4.7.8 Lack of public awareness or concern about privacy rights 4.7.9 Lack of enforcement and erosion of rights 4.7.10 People do not take adequate security precautions 4.7.11 Loss of control and technology paternalism 4.7.12 Dependency 4.7.13 Unequal access and voluntary exclusion 5 Safeguards 5.1 Technological safeguards 5.1.1 Research on overcoming the digital divide 5.1.2 Minimal data collection, transmission and storage Contents 5.1.3 Data and software security 5.1.4 Privacy protection in networking (transfer of identity and personal data) 5.1.5 Authentication and access control 5.1.6 Generic architecture-related solutions 5.1.7 Artificial intelligence safeguards 5.1.8 Recovery means 5.1.9 Conclusions and recommendations 5.2 Socio-economic safeguards 5.2.1 Standards 5.2.2 Audits 5.2.3 Open standards 5.2.4 Codes of practice 5.2.5 Trust marks and trust seals 5.2.6 Reputation systems and trust-enhancing mechanisms 5.2.7 Service contracts 5.2.8 Guidelines for ICT research 5.2.9 Public procurement 5.2.10 Accessibility and social inclusion 5.2.11 Raising public awareness 5.2.12 Education 5.2.13 Media attention, bad publicity and public opinion 5.2.14 Cultural safeguards 5.2.15 Conclusion and recommendation 5.3 Legal and regulatory safeguards 5.3.1 Introduction 5.3.2 General recommendations 5.3.3 Preserving the core of privacy and other human rights 5.3.4 Specific recommendations regarding data protection 5.3.5 Specific recommendations regarding security 5.3.6 Specific recommendations regarding consumer protection law 5.3.7 Specific recommendations regarding electronic commerce 5.3.8 Specific recommendation regarding liability law 5.3.9 Specific recommendation regarding equality law Contents 5.3.10 Specific recommendations regarding interoperability and IPR 5.3.11 Specific recommendations regarding international co-operation 6 Recommendations for stakeholders 6.1 Adopting a risk assessment/risk management approach to AmI 6.2 Recommendations for the European Commission 6.2.1 Research and development 6.2.2 Internal market and consumer protection 6.2.3 Privacy and security policy framework 6.2.4 Correcting the lacunae that exist in legislation, regulation 6.2.5 Socio-economic measures 6.3 Recommendations for the Member States 6.4 Recommendations for industry 6.5 Recommendations for civil society organisations. 6.6 Recommendations for academia. 6.7 Recommendations for individuals 7 Conclusions 7.1 User control and enforceability 7.2 The top six References Contributors Index