Starting with sludge and scum characterization, this practical guide provides least cost methods of improving sludge quality, options for beneficial reuse, the costs of implementing those options, and case studies of sludge reuse programs around the country. From the pitfalls of site selection to pairing sludge products with their markets, this is a comprehensive resource for anyone working to establish a successful sludge reuse program. Each sludge processing option is presented in depth, including costs, operational difficulties, odor control, and application of the sludge product. The land application of liquid sludge, traditional and innovative methods of natural and mechanical dewatering, and lime stabilization processes are covered in detail. Composting options including aerated static pile composting, vermicomposting, windrow composting, and in-vessel composting are investigated. Sludge pelletizing processes and innovative technologies for sludge reuse are discussed, along with the Part 503 regulations.