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Restoration of Aquatic Systems : Marine Science - Robert J. Livingston

Restoration of Aquatic Systems

Marine Science

Hardcover Published: 11th July 2005
ISBN: 9780849319662
Number Of Pages: 448

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Simplistic thinking would have us believe that by eliminating the loading of a given pollutant, an aquatic system will revert to its previous "pristine" state. This premise is without scientific verification. Besides the fact that typically very little documentation exists defining what exactly "that previous pristine state" was, it should be noted that biological processes are non-linear. They reflect adaptations by populations and corresponding responses of trophic organization that are not predictable by linear models of recovery.

Restoration of Aquatic Systems makes a clear delineation between genuine restoration and public perception of restoration efforts. Written by Robert Livingston, one of the foremost international authorities on ecosystem studies of freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, this work is the final volume of a trilogy derived from 70 field-years of data garnered from 10 different coastal systems on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The text provides a synthetic look at the restoration of aquatic systems, emphasizing the functional basis that supports such activities, followed by a review of the evidence of recovery.

Livingston considers numerous cases of scientific restoration; however, while the first two volumes could be considered pure science, this volume brings into play the impact of political as well as economic interests and where appropriate, media leverage. This work is thus concerned with just how effective the restoration process becomes as a product of a complex mixture of competing interests.

From this effort, an interdisciplinary comparative database has been created that is currently being published in a series of books and peer-reviewed scientific journals. This work is used to evaluate system-level processes that determine the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient dynamics on phytoplankton/benthic macrophyte productivity and associated food web responses.

"The strength of the book is in its emphasis on interdisciplinary science as an essential approach to ecosystem researchvaluable reading to researchers and regulatorsthe principles and mechanisms of eutrophication demonstrated here may be applicable to other regions. It serves as an instructional treatise on what is required to adequately evaluate the eutrophication process." -COPEIA, February 2002

Definitions
The Restoration Paradigmp. 3
Definitionsp. 3
Ecosystem Research and Restorationp. 3
Human Impacts on Aquatic Systemsp. 4
The Paradox of Actual Risks and Public Concernsp. 6
Factors for Successful Restorationp. 7
North Florida as a Microcosm of the Restoration Paradigm
Cultural Eutrophication of North Florida Lakesp. 13
Background of Solution (Sinkhole) Lakesp. 13
Urban Runoff and Solution Lakesp. 16
Lake Ecology Programp. 17
Urban Runoff and Lake Jacksonp. 17
Backgroundp. 17
Long-Term Cycles of Rainfall and Storm Water Runoffp. 20
Water Quality Changesp. 22
Sediment Changesp. 22
Submerged Aquatic Vegetationp. 26
Blue-Green Algae Bloomsp. 28
Biological Response to Bloomsp. 33
Infaunal Macroinvertebratesp. 34
Fishesp. 35
Fish Diseasesp. 35
Fish Distributionp. 36
Fish Trophic Response to Algal Bloomsp. 37
Long-Term Trends of Largemouth Bass Sizep. 38
Lake Jackson Restoration Effortsp. 38
Urban Runoff and North Florida Lakesp. 39
Lake Hallp. 40
Lake Lafayette Basinp. 40
Lake Munsonp. 43
Holding Pond Ecologyp. 44
Press Coverage and Public Responsep. 46
The Failure of Restorationp. 52
Industrial Pollution: Pulp Millsp. 55
Study Areap. 55
River Flows, Nutrient Loading, and Water Quality Changesp. 64
Biological Responses in Freshwater Receiving Areasp. 67
Mill Effects on Freshwater Biota: Fenholloway Riverp. 67
Periphytonp. 67
Hester-Dendy Macroinvertebratesp. 68
Suction Dredge Macroinvertebratesp. 69
Fishesp. 69
Phytoplanktonp. 72
Pulp Mill Effluents and Apalachee Bayp. 79
Study Areap. 79
Impact Analysesp. 80
Water Qualityp. 82
Rainfall and River Flowp. 82
Temperature and Salinityp. 83
Dissolved Oxygenp. 84
Watercolor and Light Transmissionp. 85
Sediment Qualityp. 88
Toxic Agentsp. 89
Nutrientsp. 90
Nutrients: Loading, Limitation, and Concentrationp. 91
Nutrient Loadingp. 91
Nutrient Limitationp. 92
Nutrient Concentration Gradientsp. 93
Phytoplankton and Zooplanktonp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Chlorophyll a Trendsp. 93
Phytoplankton distribution (1992-1993)p. 94
Color Removal and Bloom Generationp. 97
Comparison of Perdido Bay and Apalachee Bayp. 106
Zooplankton Distributionp. 110
Submerged Aquatic Vegetationp. 110
SAV Distribution in Space and Timep. 110
Invertebratesp. 115
Fishesp. 118
Summary of Findingsp. 120
Water Qualityp. 120
Chlorophyll ap. 121
Phytoplanktonp. 123
Submerged Aquatic Vegetationp. 128
Invertebratesp. 129
Fishesp. 146
Press Coverage, Public Response, and Failure of the Restoration Processp. 151
Nutrient Loading and the Perdido Systemp. 159
Phytoplankton Blooms in Coastal Systemsp. 159
Research in the Perdido River-Bay Systemp. 160
History of Resultsp. 162
River Flow Trendsp. 162
Nutrient Loadingp. 163
Nutrient Concentrations and Ratiosp. 165
Phytoplankton Trends: Bloom Distributionp. 165
Response to Nutrient Restoration Programp. 170
Bay Impacts (Fall 2002-Summer 2003)p. 173
Non-point Nutrient Sources: Agricultural and Urban Runoffp. 177
Statistical Analyses of the Long-Term Datap. 180
The Press and the Perdido Systemp. 184
The Dioxin Issuep. 185
Cumulative Impacts of Development on Perdido Bayp. 187
The News Media and Perdido Bayp. 190
The Pensacola Bay Systemp. 195
Backgroundp. 195
Purpose of Studyp. 195
Summary of Resultsp. 196
Contamination of the Pensacola Systemp. 199
Upper Escambia Bayp. 200
Lower Escambia Bayp. 201
The Press and the Pensacola Bay Systemp. 203
Sulfite Pulp Mill Restorationp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Study Areap. 208
Methods and Materialsp. 209
Resultsp. 210
Water Quality Datap. 210
Light Transmissionp. 214
Phytoplankton and Zooplanktonp. 214
Multivariate Statistical Analysesp. 219
Laboratory Microcosmsp. 221
Field Mesocosmsp. 222
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 222
Restoration Programp. 223
Physicochemical Conditionsp. 224
Light Trendsp. 227
Phytoplankton Analysesp. 227
Zooplankton Analysesp. 227
Multivariate Statistical Analysesp. 229
Discussion of the Amelia Programp. 231
Research, News Reports, and Restoration Successp. 235
Restoration Processes and Public Opinionp. 235
Florida as a Microcosm for Restoration Activitiesp. 236
Comparison of Research Results, Media Coverage, and Public Responsep. 237
Summary of Recent Trends in North Floridap. 240
Major Restoration Programs
The Chesapeake Bay Systemp. 245
A Declining Resourcep. 245
Research Resultsp. 246
Hypoxiap. 246
Phytoplanktonp. 248
Toxic Substances and Over-fishingp. 249
The Chesapeake Restoration Programp. 250
Reality Sets In: The Rainfall of 2003p. 251
Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Florida Everglades-Florida Bay-Coral Reef Systemp. 257
The Systemp. 257
Backgroundp. 259
Kissimmee River-Lake Okeechobeep. 259
Florida Evergladesp. 260
Florida Bayp. 261
Florida Keys, Coral Reefsp. 262
Water Quality in the Florida Everglades Systemp. 263
Mercuryp. 263
Nutrientsp. 264
Relationships of Nutrient Loading and Water Qualityp. 265
Recent Evaluations of the Everglades Ecosystemp. 267
Management and Restorationp. 269
The News Media and Public Involvementp. 271
Restoration of Toxic Waste Sites
Mercury and Dioxin in Aquatic Systemsp. 277
Mercury in the Aquatic Environmentp. 277
Penobscot River-Bay System in Mainep. 278
Backgroundp. 278
Mercury in the Penobscot River-Bay Systemp. 279
The "Wetlands Hypothesis"p. 281
Proposed Restoration of the Penobscot Systemp. 283
Legal Solution to the Penobscot Mercury Problemp. 284
Mercury in the South River-South Fork Shenandoah Riverp. 284
Backgroundp. 284
Mercury in the South River-South Fork Systemp. 284
Ongoing Studiesp. 286
Resolutionp. 287
Dioxin in the Aquatic Environmentp. 287
Background of Dioxin in the Newark Bay Complexp. 287
Dioxin in Fish and Invertebrate Tissuesp. 289
Newark Bay Ecology: Fate, Effects, and Restorationp. 290
Legal Action and Regulatory Responsep. 292
Regulatory Requirements and the Restoration Processp. 292
Press Response to Toxic Substancesp. 292
Alternatives: Planning and Management
The Apalachicola Systemp. 297
Backgroundp. 297
Apalachicola River Flowsp. 298
Apalachicola Floodplainp. 298
Linkage between the Apalachicola River and the Bayp. 299
Freshwater Flows and Bay Productivityp. 302
Planning and Management of the Apalachicola Bay Systemp. 305
Wetlands Purchasesp. 305
Local, State, and Federal Cooperationp. 308
The Beginning: 1972 to 1977p. 309
The Middle Years: 1978 to 1982p. 311
1983 to the Presentp. 313
Water Use in the ACF Systemp. 314
The Apalachicola Model: Management, not Restorationp. 315
Conclusionsp. 317
Introductionp. 317
Scientific Researchp. 320
Regulation and Enforcementp. 321
Public Educationp. 323
Legal Actionp. 324
News Mediap. 324
The Ecology of Restorationp. 326
Economic/Political Considerationsp. 326
Appendices
Field/Laboratory Research Outlines and Methodsp. 331
Statistical Analyses Used in the Long-Term Studies of Aquatic Systemsp. 389
Referencesp. 393
Indexp. 419
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780849319662
ISBN-10: 0849319668
Series: Marine Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 448
Published: 11th July 2005
Publisher: CRC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.26 x 18.24  x 2.95
Weight (kg): 0.96
Edition Number: 1