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Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts : The Science of Wildlife Damage Management - Michael R. Conover

Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts

The Science of Wildlife Damage Management

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As more and more people crowd onto less and less land, incidences of human-wildlife conflicts will only increase. A comprehensive overview of this emerging field, Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management discusses the issues facing wildlife managers and anyone else dealing with interactions between wildlife and humans. By defining the discipline of wildlife damage management, this book fills a void in the fields of wildlife management and ecology.

The director of the Jack H. Berryman Institute, the only academic institute devoted to wildlife damage management, author Michael Conover is the leader in this field. In this book, he stresses the inter-relatedness of wildlife damage management within the larger discipline of wildlife conservation and provides an extensive review of the scientific literature. He includes case-studies that document how an integrated approach to wildlife management can resolve wildlife-human conflicts.

Nowhere else will you find the authoritative coverage and depth of theoretical information available in Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. The combination of descriptive prose, historical details, and liberal use of informative sidebars add to its appeal as a textbook, while the organization and scope make it the ideal reference for professionals.

Definitionsp. 1
Philosophies of Wildlife Managementp. 2
What Positive Values Are Provided by Wildlife?p. 5
What Is Wildlife Damage Management?p. 6
Why Worry about Human-Wildlife Conflicts?p. 8
Contributions of Wildlife Damage Management to the Larger Field of Wildlife Managementp. 8
Alternative Definitions for Wildlife Damage Managementp. 9
What Is in a Name?p. 10
What Are the Necessary Ingredients for Damage by Wildlife?p. 12
The Role of Government in Wildlife Managementp. 13
The Role of Government Wildlife Biologistsp. 15
Summaryp. 15
Literature Citedp. 16
Prehistoric Wildlife Managementp. 17
Wildlife Damage Management in the Ancient Worldp. 19
Wildlife Damage Management in Medieval Europep. 20
Wildlife Management in Colonial America from 1620 to 1776p. 23
Wildlife Management in the U.S. from 1776 to 1880p. 26
Why the Closing of the Frontier and the Industrial Revolution Sparked a New Philosophy of Wildlife Managementp. 27
Consequences of the World Wars and the Great Depression on Wildlife Managementp. 30
Wildlife Management in Modern Americap. 31
Wildlife Management in the 21st Century: What Now?p. 33
Summaryp. 34
Literature Citedp. 35
Threats to Human Safety
Why Do Animals Attack People?p. 40
Predatory Attacksp. 40
Territorial Attacksp. 40
Defensive Attacksp. 41
How Often Are Humans Injured or Killed by Wildlife?p. 41
Snakebitesp. 43
Bear Attacksp. 44
Shark Attacksp. 46
Alligator Attacksp. 46
Attacks by Wolves and Coyotesp. 48
Cougar Attacksp. 49
Attacks by Large Herbivoresp. 51
Why Has There Been a Recent Increase in Wildlife Attacks on Humans in North America?p. 52
What Can Be Done to Reduce the Frequency of Wildlife Attacks on Humans?p. 53
Human Injuries and Fatalities from Ungulate-Automobile Collisionsp. 54
Human Injuries and Fatalities from Bird-Aircraft Collisionsp. 59
Summaryp. 62
Literature Citedp. 63
Bacterial Diseasesp. 68
Plaguep. 68
Tularemiap. 75
Salmonellosisp. 76
Leptospirosisp. 76
Lyme Diseasep. 78
Rocky Mountain Spotted Feverp. 79
Scrub Typhusp. 80
Murine Typhusp. 81
Psittacosis (Ornithosis)p. 81
Viral Diseasesp. 82
Encephalitisp. 82
Hantavirusp. 83
Rabiesp. 85
Fungal Diseasep. 87
Histoplasmosisp. 87
Summaryp. 87
Literature Citedp. 88
Economic Analyses of Wildlife Valuesp. 91
What Are the Sources of Economic Data about the Positive Values of Wildlife?p. 93
Moneyp. 93
Time Expendedp. 93
Income-Producing Abilityp. 93
Increase in Property Valuesp. 94
Willingness to Payp. 94
Willingness to Do Withoutp. 94
Why Is It Important to Have Accurate Economic Data about Losses from Wildlife Damage?p. 94
Measuring Wildlife Damage by Making a Direct Assessment of Lossesp. 95
Assessing the Extent of Wildlife Damage by Surveying Peoplep. 100
Lost Opportunity Costsp. 101
Economic Assessment of Wildlife Damage in the U.S. and Worldwidep. 101
Deer-Automobile Collisionsp. 101
Bird-Aircraft Collisionsp. 102
Wildlife Damage to Householdsp. 103
Wildlife Damage to the Timber Industryp. 105
Wildlife Damage to Agricultural Productionp. 107
Total Economic Losses Due to Wildlife Damage in the U.S.p. 108
Do High Levels of Wildlife Damage Mean that Wildlife Populations Are too High?p. 109
Wildlife Damage to Agricultural Production in Other Parts of the Worldp. 110
South Americap. 110
Icelandp. 110
Great Britainp. 110
Southeast Asiap. 111
Africap. 118
Australiap. 118
Literature Citedp. 120
Environmental Damage and Exotic Species
What Is an Exotic Species?p. 129
Impacts of Exotic Species on the Native Biotap. 130
Hawaiip. 131
Galapagos Islandsp. 132
Guamp. 133
Australiap. 133
North Americap. 135
Resolving Environmental Problems Caused by Exotic Animalsp. 136
Preventing Exotic Animals from Reaching Foreign Shoresp. 137
Preventing Exotic Animals from Establishing a Free-Ranging Populationp. 137
Controlling Populations of Exotic Animalsp. 140
Can We Predict when an Exotic Species Will Cause Environmental Damage?p. 141
Which Animals Are Likely to Invade?p. 142
When Is an Invasive Animal Likely to Establish a Free-Ranging Population?p. 143
When Is a Free-Ranging Exotic Population Likely to Cause Environmental Damage?p. 143
Which Sites Are Vulnerable to Exotic Species?p. 143
Developing an Integrated Program to Stop the Spread of Exoticsp. 144
Summaryp. 145
Literature Citedp. 146
Lethal Control
Intrinsic Growth Rates of Wildlife Populationsp. 151
What Effect Does Lethal Control Have on a Wildlife Population's Birth and Mortality Rates?p. 153
What Effect Does Lethal Control Have on a Wildlife Population's Immigration Rate?p. 157
Is There a Correlation between Wildlife Population Levels and Wildlife Damage?p. 158
How Do Values Provided by Wildlife Change as Their Populations Increase?p. 159
Should Lethal Techniques Be Directed at Specific Individuals, Specific Subpopulations, or the Entire Population?p. 161
Are Lethal Methods Legal?p. 164
Are Lethal Methods Effective at Reducing Wildlife Damage?p. 165
Should Lethal Methods Be Used Ahead of Time to Prevent Wildlife Damage or Only after Damage Has Begun?p. 167
Are Lethal Techniques Cost Effective?p. 168
Do Lethal Techniques Pose a Risk to Nontarget Species?p. 170
Are Lethal Techniques Humane and Socially Acceptable?p. 173
Common Methods Used in Lethal Controlp. 175
Cage Trapsp. 175
Leghold Trapsp. 175
Killing Traps and Snaresp. 176
Denningp. 179
Roost Spraysp. 180
Shootingp. 180
Toxicantsp. 181
Diseases and Parasitesp. 181
Summaryp. 183
Literature Citedp. 183
Fertility Control
Normal Reproductive Functionp. 190
Mechanical and Surgical Techniques to Reduce Fertilityp. 190
Reducing Fertility by Disrupting Endocrine Regulationp. 191
Immunocontraceptionp. 192
Administering Fertility Drugs to Animalsp. 193
Controlling the Release of an Antifertility Drug to the Bodyp. 194
When Should We Use Contraception in Wildlife?p. 194
Influence of Mating Systems on Contraceptionp. 195
Influence of Population Dynamics on Contraceptionp. 195
Uses of Contraception in Wildlifep. 196
Canidsp. 196
Felidsp. 197
Elephantsp. 197
Felidsp. 197
Deer, Elk, and Mountain Goatsp. 197
Equidsp. 199
Rodentsp. 200
Birdsp. 201
Oiling, Addling, or Puncturing Eggsp. 201
Efforts in Austrlia to Resolve Human-Wildlife Conflicts Using Immunocontraceptivesp. 202
What Are the Drawbacks to Wildlife Contraception?p. 204
Public Perceptions of Wildlife Fertility Controlp. 204
Laws Governing the Use of Fertility Control to Manage Wildlifep. 205
Summaryp. 205
Literature Citedp. 206
Wildlife Translocation
Examples of the Use of Translocation to Resolve Wildlife Conflictsp. 211
Do Translocated Animals Return to the Site where They Were Captured?p. 212
Do New Animals Replace the Translocated Ones So That the Problem Persists?p. 215
Do Translocated Animals Create the Same Problem Elsewhere?p. 216
What Happens to Translocated Animals?p. 217
What Are the Consequences of Translocation on Resident Wildlife Populations?p. 220
Competitive Interactionsp. 220
Disease and Parasite Transmissionp. 220
Reproduction and Population Geneticsp. 221
Is Translocation Cost-Effective?p. 222
What Are Governmental Policies Concerning the Translocation of Nuisance Animals?p. 223
When Is Translocation Warranted?p. 224
Summaryp. 225
Literature Citedp. 225
Fear-Provoking Stimuli
Visual Stimulip. 230
Auditory Stimulip. 232
Exploders and Bangersp. 232
Novel Soundsp. 233
Distress Calls and Alarm Callsp. 234
Olfactory Stimulip. 235
Chemical Stimulip. 236
The Problem of Habituationp. 236
Can Habituation to Fear-Provoking Stimuli Be Delayed?p. 237
Using Live Predators as Fear-Provoking Stimulip. 239
Using Guard Dogs as Fear-Provoking Stimulip. 239
Hazing or Harassmentp. 241
Summaryp. 242
Literature Citedp. 243
Chemical Repellents
How Plants Use Chemicals to Defend Themselves from Herbivoresp. 249
Biological Basis of Food Preferencesp. 250
Role of Olfaction in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 250
Role of Taste in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 251
Role of Tactile Stimuli in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 251
Role of Irritants in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 251
Role of Post-Ingestion Feedback in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 252
Role of Early-Life Experiences in Shaping Food Preferencesp. 253
Types of Repellentsp. 253
Area Repellentsp. 253
Contact Repellentsp. 255
Systemic Repellentsp. 256
Conditioned Food Aversions Based on Deceptionp. 258
Similarities between Batesian Mimicry and DBFAp. 259
Precision of Mimicryp. 259
Costs to Benefits Ratiop. 260
Factors Influencing Repellent Effectiveness to Reduce Wildlife Damagep. 261
Weatherp. 261
Repellent Concentrationp. 261
Duration of the Problemp. 262
Availability of Alternate Food Suppliesp. 262
Relative Plant Palatabilityp. 262
Laws Governing the Use of Vertebrate Repellentsp. 262
Summaryp. 263
Literature Citedp. 264
Optimal Foraging Theoryp. 272
Large Group Formation as an Antipredator Behavior--A Natural Form of Diversionp. 273
Examples of Diversion to Resolve Human-Wildlife Conflictsp. 274
Creating a Food Diversion through Habitat Modificationp. 277
Response of Wildlife to Supplemental Foodp. 278
Response of Wildlife to Diversionp. 279
Cost Effectivenessp. 280
What Type of Food or Crop Should Be Used in Diversion?p. 281
Where Should a Feeder Station or Diversion Crop Be Located?p. 282
Can Wildlife Damage and the Effectiveness of Diversion Be Predicted?p. 285
Which Are Better, Diversionary Crops or Feeder Stations?p. 286
Can Diversion Be Used with Other Techniques?p. 286
Summaryp. 287
Literature Citedp. 287
Factors Influencing the Cost Effectiveness of Fencing to Reduce Wildlife Damagep. 291
Cost of Fence Constructionp. 291
Area to Be Fencedp. 292
Crop Valuep. 292
Fences to Exclude Deerp. 294
Woven-Wire Fencingp. 294
Electric Fencingp. 296
Using Fences to Reduce Predation on Livestockp. 300
Using Exclusion to Reduce Predation on Nesting Birdsp. 301
Fences to Protect Individual Nestsp. 301
Fences to Protect Habitat Patchesp. 304
Using Nesting Structures to Isolate Nesting Birds from Predatorsp. 304
Building Islands to Isolate Nesting Birds from Predatorsp. 305
Using Barriers to Protect Individual Trees from Herbivoresp. 306
Tree Guards to Reduce Deer Browsing on Tree Shootsp. 306
Wraps and Shields to Protect Tree Trunks from Being Girdledp. 307
Exclusionary Devices to Prevent Beaver from Rebuilding Damsp. 309
Using a Trap-Barrier System to Reduce Rat Damage in Rice Fieldsp. 310
Using Exclusion to Solve Bird Damagep. 311
Excluding Wildlife from Buildingsp. 314
Summaryp. 316
Literature Citedp. 316
Habitat Manipulation
Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Modifying the Resourcep. 321
Growing Unpalatable Plant Species to Reduce Wildlife Damagep. 321
Growing Cultivars or Varieties Less Susceptible to Wildlife Damagep. 322
Grain Sorghump. 323
Cornp. 324
Sunflowersp. 324
Silvicultural Techniques to Reduce Wildlife Damage to Timber Productionp. 325
Changing Husbandry Practices to Reduce Predation on Livestockp. 325
Agronomical Techniques to Reduce Agricultural Losses Due to Wildlife Damagep. 326
Reducing Wildlife Damage by Changing Planting and Harvesting Schedulesp. 327
Reducing the Vulnerability of Buildings to Bird Problemsp. 328
Making Buildings More Rodent-Proofp. 329
Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Modifying the Habitat around the Resourcep. 330
Habitat Modification to Minimize Wildlife Damage to Timber Productionp. 330
Habitat Modification to Minimize Wildlife Damage to Agricultural Productionp. 331
Manipulating Habitat to Increase an Animal's Fear of a Sitep. 332
Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts at the Landscape Levelp. 334
Avoiding Damage by Clustering Vulnerable Resources Togetherp. 335
Avoiding Damage by Increasing Field Sizep. 336
Reducing Damage by Managing Distant Bird Roostsp. 338
Reducing Damage by Managing Distant Refugiap. 340
Summaryp. 341
Literature Citedp. 341
Human Dimensions
Societal Responses to Wildlife Damagep. 348
Differences in Attitudes toward Wildlifep. 348
Negativistic and Neutralistic Attitudesp. 349
Humanistic Attitudep. 349
Moralistic Attitudep. 350
Utilitarian Attitudep. 350
Aesthetic Attitudep. 350
Naturalistic Attitudep. 350
Stakeholder Perceptions of Wildlife Damagep. 350
Farmers, Ranchers, and Private Landownersp. 350
Hunters and Fur Trappersp. 351
Wildlife Enthusiastsp. 352
Animal Welfare Activistsp. 352
Animal Rights Activistsp. 353
Metropolitan Residentsp. 353
Rural Residentsp. 356
Impact of Wildlife Damage on a Person's Attitudes toward Wildlifep. 357
The Concept of Cultural Carrying Capacityp. 358
Why Is the Management of Human-Wildlife Conflicts So Controversial?p. 359
Making Policy Decisions Regarding Wildlife Damage Managementp. 362
Forming Partnerships between Wildlife Agencies and People Suffering from Wildlife Damagep. 364
Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts through the Human Dimensionp. 364
Alleviating Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Changing Human Behaviorp. 365
Alleviating Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Increasing the Injured Person's Appreciation for Wildlifep. 365
Increasing Tolerance for Human-Wildlife Conflicts through Educationp. 366
Increasing Tolerance for Human-Wildlife Conflicts through Compensationp. 367
Are People's Perceptions about Wildlife Damage Accurate?p. 368
Summaryp. 370
Literature Citedp. 370
Developing an Integrated Approach
Reducing Blackbird Damage to Sunflowersp. 375
Lethal Controlp. 377
Fear-Provoking Stimulip. 378
Chemical Repellentsp. 379
Diversionp. 380
Habitat Modificationp. 380
Human Dimensionsp. 382
Developing an Integrated Approachp. 382
Reducing Bird Predation at Fish Farmsp. 383
Lethal Controlp. 383
Fear-Provoking Stimulip. 385
Diversionp. 386
Exclusionp. 387
Habitat Modificationp. 388
Human Dimensionsp. 389
Developing an Integrated Approachp. 389
Protecting Ground-Nesting Birds from Mammalian Predatorsp. 390
Lethal Controlp. 390
Fertility Controlp. 391
Exclosuresp. 392
Repellentsp. 392
Diversionp. 393
Habitat Modificationp. 393
Human Dimensionsp. 394
Developing an Integrated Approachp. 395
Summaryp. 395
Literature Citedp. 396
Latin Names for Species Mentioned in the Textp. 403
Indexp. 407
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781566705387
ISBN-10: 156670538X
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 440
Published: 1st August 2001
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.79
Edition Number: 1